Timeline for History of Music Technology. This Timeline has been created for Educational purposes and based on an Assay for one the course's module (Music Technology).
Created by ramoncernuda on 04/02/2011
Last updated: 06/02/11 at 22:16
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he iPhone 4 is a touchscreen smartphone developed by Apple. It is the fourth generation of iPhone, and successor to the iPhone 3GS. It is particularly marketed for video calling, consumption of media such as books and periodicals, movies, music, and games, and for general web and e-mail access. It was announced on June 7, 2010, at the WWDC 2010 held at the Moscone Center, San Francisco,and was released on June 24, 2010 in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Japan. The iPhone 4 runs Apple's iOS operating system, the same operating system as used on previous iPhones, the iPad, and the iPod Touch. It is primarily controlled by a user's fingertips on the multi-touch display, which is sensitive to fingertip contact. The most noticeable difference between the iPhone 4 and its predecessors is the new design, which incorporates an uninsulated stainless steel frame that acts as the device's antenna. The internal components of the device are situated between two panels of chemically strengthened aluminosilicate glass. It has an Apple A4 processor and 512 MB of eDRAM, twice that of its predecessor and four times that of the original iPhone. Its 3.5-inch (89 mm) LED backlit liquid crystal display with a 960×640 pixel resolution is marketed as the "Retina Display". The latest operating system release, iOS 4.2.1, added functionality such as AirPrint, and AirPlay.
The most recent iPod released in 2007 was the iPodTouch, the first iPod with WiFi and a Mulit-touch interface. With the new iPod touch you can reach the safari browser, YouTube and the iTunes store to purchase music directly from your iPod. Storage for the iPod touch ranges from 8 to 64GB.
In October of 2001 Apple introduced the biggest hit in music media, the iPod. The iPod grew in popularity rapidly. over the course of 7 years there have been 14 different versions of the iPod all with different capabilities and specialties. The iPod began with the Classic. The first 3 Classic iPods ranged between 5 and 40GB. After the release of the third classic Apple released the first iPod mini. The minis were available in 5 different colors and had a storage capacity of 4GB. After the mini's the fourth classic iPod was release which now held photos transferred from your computer via USB. Next came the iPod shuffle, a faceless iPod that used flash memory and only held 1GB. The iPod classic with the photos was now available in color (picture shown) and held up to 60GB. The second iPod mini was also out which held up to 6GB and now had a brighter color screen and a longer battery life. Replacing the iPod mini, the iPod nano was next, the nano came in black and white and held up to 4GB of information. the nano also held photos. The next classic released could now not only hold photos but hold video files also, up to 80GB of space was available on the iPod Video. Later the 2nd nano was released and came in 6 colors holding up to 6GB of music and photos. in 2006 the latest shuffle was released. Now smaller and with a convenient clip and 4 color choices holding 2 GB of music. The latest classic iPod was released in 2007 this iPod held pictures, videos and 160GB of information. Also in 2007 the third nano came out, now with video capabilities, a smaller body and bigger screen, new color choices, new interface and 3GB of memory.
When software for the music file-sharing program Napster first emerged in 1999, it caused a furor in the entertainment industry. Issues regarding copyrights and artist compensation were hotly debated among record company executives, musicians and listeners. What began as a small forum for sharing and trading music tracks eventually revolutionized the way music is promoted, sold and distributed. Napster was created by Shawn Fanning, an 18-year-old freshman at Northeastern University in Boston. His software was designed so that he and his friends could share their digital music files. The program was officially launched on June 1, 1999. Word of the Napster program quickly spread, and music fans (some searching for rare out-of-print recordings and others simply intent on gathering free music) swarmed the website. According to the Globe and Mail article "Thank you, Napster," the software had been downloaded more than 2 million times within 6 months of its launch. As more music became available online for free through Napster, musicians and record companies expressed anger about their loss of compensation. According to CNET's article "Feds Disagree about Napster Controversy," the Justice Department and the U.S. Copyright Office filed legal proceedings against Napster in July 2000, claiming that the program and its users were engaged in massive copyright infringement. Many high-profile artists, including Metallica, Alanis Morissette, Sarah McLachlan, Blink-182 and Garth Brooks urged fans to reject Napster and purchase music through legitimate retailers. As reported by CNET, Hank Barry, an executive with Hummer Winblad Venture Partners in San Francisco, invested in $13 million in 2000 in the Napster product. He immediately met with music industry personnel to hammer out a deal to allow Napster to distribute their music. No deal was reached. Napster was bought by Roxio and relaunched in 2003, not as a file-sharing site, but as a retail music distributor. Napster is recognized as the catalyst that led to the creation of the digital music industry. Steve Jobs of the Apple Corporation, creators of the iPod mp3 player, used the Napster concept to create iTunes, the most successful retail digital music store. Other digital music distributors that later emerged include Rhapsody and Zune. As of 2009, Napster continues to thrive as a legal digital music source.
The very first solid state commercial music player didn’t come from Apple, Diamond or Creative as many think. In fact, it came from a Korean company called SaeHan Information Systems, and was imported to the U.S. by Eiger Labs. The MPMan was the very first MP3 Player of all time. It featured a whopping 32MB of RAM (expandable to 64MB by sending the player back to Eiger for an upgrade,) and held about 8 average length tracks (around 32 minutes of music.) The MPMan appeared on shelves in the summer of 1998, and ran on a rechargeable NiMH battery pack. Since the player used solid state memory, it actually had about 9 hours of battery life, which is still better than many hard drive based players today.
The smartphone differs from ordinary mobile phones in that they are capable of advanced functionality because they contain software applications that can be run directly from the phone itself. This software is typically open-source, an advantage that makes adding applications as easy as loading them onto the phone via wireless downloads. Today, these devices are not considered very "smart" unless they can accomodate a datebook/calendar, advanced internet connectivity, photography, music and even video capability. IBM was the first to venture into the business of offering consumers a highly advanced mobile phone. In 1993, the company introduced what could be considered the world's smartphone - simply called Simon. Considered low-end by today's standard, this first smartphone featured an amazing array of features - email, address book, clock, calendar, note pad, and even the ability to send and receive faxes. During the mid-90's, Nokia began to heat things up by introducing its first line of smartphone - the Nokia 9000 series. This phone was not only the first in a series of popular smart phones manufactured by Nokia, they were also the most expensive, coming in at 20-40% more costly than its rivals. The Nokia 9210 was indeed the first real and true smartphone due to its open operating system. The 21st century has spawned smartphones that are incredibly powerful and easy to use. Touch-screen functionality has become the norm and manufacturers such as Apple, Nokia and Research in Motion are furiously vying for the smartphone consumer and business dollar. Apple changed the smartphone industry with its introduction of the Apple iPhone in 2007. Nokia has since countered with the unveiling of its Nokia XPress Music Phone in 2008. The Nokia 5800 is a touch-screen lovers dream that includes just about every feature a user would want. The handset even comes with millions of downloadable music tracks at no cost. Google recently joined the fray by introducing it Android phone during the same time period. Could the smartphone get any smarter than it already is? Sure can! In the not so distant future, virtually everyone on earth will be carrying some type of smartphone - devices that will make today's handsets pale in comparison. Increased bandwidth and speed will allow phones to be able to handle video in real-time with no problem. In the future, these mobile handsets will be indispensable to daily life, used for a wide array of functions, including consumer purchases, banking, real-time video connectivity, advanced GPS tracking, entertainment and much more.
Introduced by Sony. Imployed the casssette format to record digitallly. The DAT ( Digital Audio Tape ) Recorder was developed by Sony, and in 1987 Sony launched their first DAT Recorder the DTC-1000ES.
In 1983, the MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) specification was introduced to better exploit the computers inside these new musical instruments and primarily to allow equipment from various manufacturers to work together. MIDI expresses musical events (notes played, vibrato, dynamics, etc.) as a common language consisting of standardized digital data. This data can be understood by MIDI compatible computers and computer-based musical instruments. Computers just love to work with numbers, and since music and mathematics are intimately related (consider tempos, rhythmic divisions such as quarter notes, vibrato rates, the frequency of middle C, etc.), it's probably not surprising that most current electronic musical instruments contain an internal computer to do the number crunching. Before electronics, music was expressed exclusively as written symbols. By translating musical parameters into digital data, MIDI can express not only the types of musical events written into sheet music, but other parameters as well (such as the amount of pitch bend or degree of vibrato).
Compact Dics or CDs were introduced in 1982 in Japan. The first CD released was Billy Joel's "52nd Street". One year later, in 1983, CDs were released in the USA. It only took 3 years for CDs to overtake LPs as the top selling music media in the United States. In 1999 Recordable CDs became available.
MTV was founded in 1981, during the 1980-82 recession. When MTV broadcast its first music video, most people listened to music on the radio, but they didn't watch it on TV. Begun on a shoestring budget with a cast of unknown VJs, today MTV (VIA) is a 24-hour global brand. It has spun out the music video networks VHI and CMT, Nickelodeon, Spike TV, Comedy Central, among others. Kedrosky's reasons for the company's success: "MTV rode the same unbundling that CNN did. The economic slump impacted MTV in its early days. They operated essentially on Krazy Glue and twine. It helped immensely. Rather than having the problem of multimillion-dollar-a-year hosts. They started the network with people nobody had heard of. When they got too expensive, they dumped them; they had no other choice at the time.
Sony Walkman introduced, first personal headphone stereo, Japan
1963- Phillips develops a compact stereo cassette tape and player. The cassette tape became the most popular form of music media for several years. In the 70s it became possible to record your own music off of records or the radio onto a blank cassette tape. Cassettes brought something new to the world of music media in the 60s. You were now able to listen to music on the go. Portable cassette players were also released.
In 1962 multi-track analog tape recording began in recording studios. The idea of a multitrack recorder and experiments started in the late 1940s by guitarist, inventor and composer Les Paul. Artists such as the Beatles and the Beach Boys began to multitrack extensively. After this started, almost all popular music was recorded this way.
Disc Jockeys came about in the U.S. during the 1930’s but beatmatching didn’t arrive until the late 1960’s and early 1970’s through Francis Grasso of the Bronx. One of the first people to use twin turntables for continuous play was British DJ and TV personality Jimmy Savile. In the late 1940’s Jimmy paid a metalworker to weld two domestic record decks together, this was the very beginning of ‘twin-deck' DJing, allowing two records to be played back to back continuously. Hip Hop DJs in New York took vinyl record play to a new level with scratching and beat juggling in the 1970’s, vinyl records have since become an intrinsic part of the dance music scene.
LPs (Long Playing record) also known as an "album" were invented in 1948. The 33 1/3 LP was released by Columbia Records. The preferred disc for singles became the large-hole 45rpm records by RCA Victor in 1949. The 45rpm record was 7". In 1952 the Recording Industry Association of America was formed. There was the 33-1/3rpm LP, the 78rpm, and the 45rpm at 12", 10" and 7". in 1955 the 12" became more popular than the original 10" LPs.
In the 1930s jukebox manufacturers began to perceive that their amount of "play" had something todo with the appearance of their machines: the more color and visible "action" the better. In 1938 AMI debuted its Streamliner, which featured flourescent lighting behind multicolored acrylic panels. As with all jukebox makers, AMI ceased production during the war. But in 1946 the company was ready to hit the market with the jukebox shown here, the Model A, which was to become an all-time classic. It was known as the "Mother of Plastic." In the Model A, revolving cylinders lit from insidecarried the Streamliner's combination of fluorescent lights and multicolored acrylics to new heights. Junkeboxes such as this were a celebration of the qualities inherent in plastics (translucency, colorability, plasticity itself).
In television's electromechanical era, commercially made television sets were sold from 1928 to 1934 in the United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union. The earliest commercially made sets sold by Baird in the UK in 1928 were radios with the addition of a television device consisting of a neon tube behind a mechanically spinning disk (the Nipkow disk) with a spiral of apertures that produced a red postage-stamp size image, enlarged to twice that size by a magnifying glass. The Baird "Televisor" was also available without the radio. The Televisor sold in 1930–1933 is considered the first mass-produced set, selling about a thousand units.
NBC (National Broadcasting Company) begins as the first radio network. The inauguration of the NBC Radio network was celebrated on November 15th with a 4 1/2 hour gala broadcast from the Grand Ballroom of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, NY; it was estimated half of the nation's 5 million radio sets were tuned in for the broadcast; Quickly two networks ("chains" of stations) were distinguished -- one was called the"NBC Red Network" and the other the "NBC Blue Network", which was sold in 1945 to form the ABC Radio Network as the result of an anti-trust settlement. At that point only the "Red network" remained, but in view of increasing post-war anti-communism NBC dropped the "Red Network" from its name.
In 1922, the Tri-Ergon Light-Tone process, which inscribes sound as a light track on the edge of filmstrips, is first presented in Berlin and becomes in its time one of the leading sound-movie techniques. The name Tri-Ergon refers to its three inventors: Vogt, Massolle und Engl. One of the first Tri-Ergon-Productions was «Weekend» by Walter Ruttmann and «Hallo! Hier Welle Erdball!» by Friedrich Bischoff and Werner Milch.
The first radio broadcast of a major league baseball game was heard today in baseball history (1921). Studio announcer Harold Arlin became the first play-by-play man as he described the Pittsburgh Pirates' 8-5 victory over the Philadelphia Phillies from Forbes Field on radio station KDKA. Not everyone in major league baseball welcomed the exposure on this new medium called "radio." Many were concerned games on radio would keep fans at home rather than at the ballpark, an observation that seems shortsighted today. Staff at KDKA looked at that first broadcast as a one-time thing; baseball would be too slow moving to become regular programming. It turned out radio's intimacy made it and baseball an ideal match. Radio's portability helped too; at home, in the car, at the office, a transistor radio under the pillow. Still, it took years for many teams to recognize the marketing ability of broadcasting games. It was 1938 before major league games were regularly broadcast in New York City, the country's largest market.
In 1906 the Victrola model record player was introduced by RCA Victor. This record player had variable turntable speeds to accommodate the already wide range of records being produced at the time. Two years later Columbia Records introduced the first double-sided phonograph records. Finally in 1912, cylinder recordings were a thing of the past and disc recordings were the hip thing to have. 12 years after the invention of the record made a hit, in 1924 things got a little more high-tech. Electrical reords were now replacing the acoustic records of the past. In 1928 the standard speed for all phonograph records became 78.26rpm.
early 1900's - Gramophone records. The Phonograph was great at the time but it was only good for a one time only playback and the sound quality was terrible. 10 years after the Phonograph was invented Emile Berliner came up with the Gramophone. He was the first inventor to stop recording on cylinders and start recording on flat discs or records. The first records were made of glass. Later on they were made of zinc and eventually plastic. The records had a spiral groove etched into it with sound information that the "arm" of the gramophone, which held a needle, would run through while being hand-cranked and play the sound through the gramophone speaker. The record was the first sound recording that could be mass produced in 1900 which was perfected by Eldridge Johnson. Johnson and Berliner began working together shortly after the gramophone made it big and eventually created an easier way of listening to these new records. Johnson made a motor for the gramophone to keep it at a steady speed instead of hand-cranking the records.
This clock-work-driven disc-type telegraphone was used for magnetic recording and replay of sound, and was a forerunner of the modern dictaphone. The Telegraphone was patented in 1898 by the Danish electrical engineer and inventor Valdemar Poulsen (1869-1942). Poulsen discovered that he could record sound by speaking into a microphone attached to a magnet that was moved slowly acros a thin wire. As the wire became magnetised, a trail of sound patterns was recorded.
Who invented the radio is a very debatable topic. A number of researchers have contributed to it. The history of radio can be considered from 1895. The lightning-recording antenna was invented by Aleksandr Popov in 1895. The first experimental transmission of wireless signals were carried out by Guglielmo Marconi in the same year. A patent of wireless communication was filed by Marconi in 1896. In 1899, a 42 km link was laid between two cruisers containing Ducretet-Popov devices in France. In the same year, a wireless transmission was laid through the English Channel from Wimereux to Dover by Marconi. In 1901, Marconi demonstrated the first transatlantic wireless transmission between Poldhu and St. John's by using Morse code. In 1903, Valdemar Poulsen began arc transmission to create high-frequency alternators to send radio waves. The New York Times and the London Times knew about the Russo-Japanese war due to radio in 1903. In the next year, a commercial maritime radio network was established under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs in France. Then, John Fleming invented the thermionic two-electrode valve so that sound transmission was feasible. In 1905, lead sulphide could be used to detect radio-electric signals. In 1906, Reginald Fessenden designed a high-frequency alternator and transmitted human voice over the radio. In 1906, Lee de Forest made the detection, transmission and amplification of sound possible. In 1910, a broadcast from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York city could be heard on a ship that was 20 km away. 1911 to 1930 was the period of the growth of the radio. The Radio Corporation of America was founded. This was done by combining General Electic, Western Electric, AT&T and Westinghouse. It was in this era that radio broadcasting began in Australia. Battery-powered receivers having headphones and valves were seen in France. A radio telephone concert was broadcast across the Atlantic Ocean to several receivers. In this era, radio broadcasting started in Shanghai and Cuba. The first regular broadcasts took place in Belgium, Norway, Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Soon radio became prevalent throughout the globe.
Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, phonograph cylinder. The first great invention developed by Edison in Menlo Park was the tin foil phonograph. While working to improve the efficiency of a telegraph transmitter, he noted that the tape of the machine gave off a noise resembling spoken words when played at a high speed. This caused him to wonder if he could record a telephone message. He began experimenting with the diaphragm of a telephone receiver by attaching a needle to it. He reasoned that the needle could prick paper tape to record a message. His experiments led him to try a stylus on a tinfoil cylinder, which, to his great surprise, played back the short message he recorded, "Mary had a little lamb". The word phonograph was the trade name for Edison's device, which played cylinders rather than discs. The machine had two needles: one for recording and one for playback. When you spoke into the mouthpiece, the sound vibrations of your voice would be indented onto the cylinder by the recording needle. This cylinder phonograph was the first machine that could record and reproduce sound created a sensation and brought Edison international fame. August 12, 1877, is the date popularly given for Edison's completion of the model for the first phonograph. It is more likely, however, that work on the model was not finished until November or December of that year, since he did not file for the patent until December 24, 1877. He toured the country with the tin foil phonograph, and was invited to the White House to demonstrate it to President Rutherford B. Hayes in April 1878. In 1878, Thomas Edison established the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company to sell the new machine. He suggested other uses for the phonograph, such as: letter writing and dictation, phonographic books for blind people, a family record (recording family members in their own voices), music boxes and toys, clocks that announce the time, and a connection with the telephone so communications could be recorded.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone. Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work. His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876. In retrospect, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils and aeronautics. In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.