Drexel Cross-Continental Team Project (Team #9). Technology and changes over the past 20 years.
Created by randallulrich on Nov 9, 2010
Last updated: 11/21/10 at 02:56 PM
Team #9: Drexel Cross-Continental Team Project has no followers yet. Be the first one to follow.
Our global society needs leaders, who can communicate across cultures, be sensitive to change, encourage innovation and creativity. We need to rethink "the structure" of leadership, i.e. can it be a group, instead of one person, which is the accepted paradigm? The world cannot rely on super heroes to move forward to a sustainable future. Instead we need one another, possibly a community of leaders...
Short video clip demonstrating the need for the global community to shift thinking to achieve sustainability. Global community must understand and act on the paradigm that everyone is connected and impacts one another.
Complete Information and Chart: http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2010/college/
All of the increase in employment over the past two decades has been among workers who have taken at least some college classes or who have associate or bachelor's degrees—and mostly among workers with bachelor's degrees. The number of these college-educated workers has increased almost every year. Over the 1992–2009 period, the number of college-educated workers increased from 27 million to 44 million. In contrast, the number of employed people with only a high school diploma or without a high school diploma has remained steady or decreased.
US Federal Job Projections 2008 - 2018
1. Biomedical Engineers - Bachelors Degree
2. Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts - Bachelors Degree (many companies require graduate degrees, however in "real life").
3. Home Health Aides - Short-Term OJT and/or HHA Certificate.
4. Personal/Home Care Aides - Short-Term OJT
5. Financial Examiners - Bachelors Degree
6. Medical - Doctorate
7. Physician’s Assistants - Masters Degree (not all doctors require this much education for their assistants in private practice).
8. Skin Care Specialists - Vocational Certificate
9. Biochemists/Biophysicists - Doctorate
10. Athletic Trainers - Bachelor Degree
In California, energy shortages cause power outages impacting school closures and increasing the cost of heating and lighting of schools. Leaders increasingly must consider energy from a strategic and budgetary view. Across the U.S. some universities and colleges commit to becoming energy efficient.
The 25 Top Jobs for 2005-2010
By: Matt Quinn, January 24, 2005 http://www.fastcompany.com/articles/2005/01/top-jobs-main.html?page=0%2C1
What are the best jobs to pursue for the next five years? Fast Company draws on the work of the Bureau of Labor Statistics and an innovation expert to tap the top jobs.
• Personal finance adviser
• Medical scientist
• Computer software engineer
• Environmental engineer
• Biochemist and biophysicist
• Sales manager
• Computer system analyst
• Agent and business manager for artists, performers, and athletes
• Marketing manager
• Producer and director
• Advertising and promotions manager
• Management analyst
• Postsecondary education administrator
• Financial manager
• Airline pilot, copilot, and flight engineer
• Market research analyst
• Securities sales agent
• Medical and health services manager
Full Article By Patrick M. Callan http://www.highereducation.org/reports/cwrecession/MIS11738.pdf
A look at the recession of the 1990s brings some tough lessons for state policymakers seeking to preserve
opportunity for their residents:
1. When revenue shortfalls are allocated among state services, higher
education is likely to absorb larger cuts than other sectors.
2. When higher education faces cuts in state funding, the state and
higher education institutions are likely to shift shortfalls to
students and their families by raising tuition.
3. During a recession, states are unlikely to make new or additional
investments in student financial aid that will offset increases in
tuition. Indeed, student aid may be reduced. For example, in
California over the first three years of the 1990s’ recession, state support
for public higher education was reduced.
Three significant challenges:
1. Enrollment Growth and Diversity.
2. The Dilemmas of Tuition Policy.
3. The Mismatches Between Public Policies of the 1990s and the Needs of the New Decade. During the next decade, the cohort of prospective students will include larger proportions of students from low-income families and underrepresented ethnic groups.
Actually began with SMS (Short Message Service) in 1993. Not until text capable cell phones in early 2000's did use become more common. Then, between 2006-2009, after flat billing was available, volume grew to its current levels. Now it leaks over into every area of life - classrooms, workplaces, personal lives, & cars.
Complete information: http://www.finaid.org/educators/history.phtml
• 2000 College Scholarship Fraud Prevention Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-420, November 1, 2000)
• 2000 Lenders sue the US Department of Education to try to block the Department from offering loan discounts to Direct Loan borrowers without offering similar discounts to FFEL borrowers. The lenders also questioned whether the discounts are cost neutral, as required by the Higher Education Act. The Department believes that these reductions will save the government money by preventing defaults, save students money by reducing costs, and are necessary to level the playing field. Many lenders already offer similar discounts. (November 7, 2000)
• 2001 Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA), P.L. 107-16 (enhanced section 529 plans and other education tax credits, renamed Education IRAs as Coverdell accounts)
• 2005 Section 220 of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 (BAPCPA), P.L. 109-8 amended the US Bankruptcy code at 11 USC 523(a)(8) to include an exception to discharge for "qualified education loans". Previously only private student loans made by a nonprofit institution (as well as federal education loans) were exempted from discharge.
• 2002 Public Law 107-139 (February 8, 2002) changed education loan interest rates from variable rates to fixed rates for new loans issued after July 1, 2006. The interest rate on Stafford Loans will be 6.8%. The interest rate on PLUS Loans will be 7.9%.
• 2003 US Supreme Court rulings on affirmative action cases Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger
• 2005 Higher Education Reconciliation Act of 2005 (HERA 2005) (part of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005) cuts $12.7 billion from student aid: switches Stafford and PLUS interest rates to fixed rates of 6.8% and 8.5% (an increase from P.L. 107-139), keeps maximum Pell Grant at $4,050 for fourth year in a row, gradually reduces loan fees from 4% to 1%, increases some annual loan limits without increasing cumulative loan limits, changes financial aid treatment of prepaid tuition plans, allows graduate and professional students to borrow PLUS loans, eliminates floor income guarantee and some 9.5% loan recycling, adds SMART Grants for less than 10% of Pell Grant recipients, repeals early repayment status loophole, and adds restrictions to School as Lender, among other changes.
• 2005 FY2006 Federal Budget cuts 1% from all discretionary spending, including student aid.
• 2005 Student loan interest rates reach historical low, allowing borrowers who consolidate during the in-school period to lock in a rate of 2.88%. Early repayment status loophole allows continuing students to consolidate.
• 2006 The Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-222) increased the age at which income earned by children is taxed at the child's rate (the so-called Kiddie Tax) from age 14 to age 18. This change is effective for tax years beginning after December 31, 2005.
• 2006 The Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-432, December 20, 2006), also known as the omnibus tax extender bill extended the Tuition and Fees deduction for two years (2006 and 2007).
• 2006 The December 31, 2010 sunset on the favorable tax status of section 529 college savings plans and other improvements from the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 has been eliminated. These improvements were made permanent as part of the Pension Protection Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-280).
• 2006 The single holder rule was repealed as part of Public Law 109-234, the Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense, the Global War on Terror, and Hurricane Recovery, 2006. The repeal is effective June 15, 2006. All borrowers may now consolidate their loans with any lender. Previously, borrowers who had all their loans with a single lender were required to consolidate their loans with that lender. This increases competition for student loans, and may lead to improved benefits and lower costs for borrowers.
• 2007 Section 8241 of the Small Business and Work Opportunity Act of 2007, which was included in the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-28), increased the age at which a child's income is taxed at the child's rate (the so-called Kiddie Tax) from age 18 to 19 (24 for full-time students) for children whose earned income does not provide more than one-half of their support. The age is relative to December 31 of the tax year. This roughly aligns the kiddie tax age threshold with the definition of independent student, substituting tax year for award year. This change is effective for tax years beginning after May 25, 2007.
• 2007 Allegations by the New York Attorney General of lender-college revenue sharing agreements, referral fees and other conflicts of interest lead to multi-million dollar settlements by the largest education lenders. Lenders and colleges agreed to abide by a new code of conduct that bans certain practices. Prominent financial aid administrators and a US Department of Education official were put on paid leave following relevations of their lender stock holdings and payments received from lenders.
• 2007 The Revised Continuing Appropriations Resolution of 2007 (P.L. 110-5) increased the maximum Federal Pell Grant for 2007-2008 by $260 to $4,310, ending four years of no increases in the maximum Pell Grant.
• 2007 The College Cost Reduction and Access Act of 2007 (summary) passed the House and Senate on September 7, 2007 with veto-proof margins (79 to 12 in the Senate, 292 to 97 in the House), and was signed into law on September 27, 2007 (P.L. 110-84). The legislation was billed by the Democratic Leadership as the largest increase in federal student aid since the GI Bill, paid for at no cost to the taxpayers by cutting payments to lenders and guarantee agencies. The legislation increased the maximum Pell Grant from $4,310 in 2007-08 to $5,400 in 2012-13, added Teach Grants of $4,000 a year
• 2007 The US Department of Education announced that it will be eliminating mass distribution of paper FAFSAs to schools and libraries with the 2008-09 FAFSA. Instead, students will be encouraged to submit the FAFSA online.
• 2008 Congress finally reauthorized the Higher Education Act of 1965 after more than a dozen extension acts. The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (PL 110-315) added numerous new disclosure requirements including the Student Loan Sunshine Act. Other significant changes include veterans' education benefits will no longer be treated as a resource starting in 2010-11, expands the cohort default rate from a two-year to a three-year window, establishes three new up-front loan forgiveness programs, requires education lenders to report repayment status information to all national consumer credit reporting agencies, authorizes a simplified EZ FAFSA form, requires standardization of the financial aid award letter, and softens the 90/10 rule.
• 2009 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 was passed by the House and Senate on February 13, 2009 largely along party lines. The bill includes a $500 increase in the maximum Pell Grant (discretionary funding) for 2009-10, a $700 increase in the Hope Scholarship tax credit from $1,800 to $2,500 for 2009 and 2010 (along with partial 40%/$1,000 refundability, an increase from 2 years to 4 years and expanded income phaseouts), $200 million in additional Federal Work-Study funding and $200 million in AmeriCorps funding.
• 2010 The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (P.L. 111-152) was passed by the House and Senate on March 25, 2010 along party lines and signed into law by President Obama on March 30, 2010. The bill eliminates the federally-guaranteed student loan program (FFELP), with all new federal education loans made through the Direct Loan program starting July 1, 2010.
Educational change leaders: • Grant Wiggins, Carol Ann Tomlinson, and Jay McTighe - Understanding by Design – uses standards driven curriculum to help teachers clarify learning goals
Trends in Education: UBD • Professional development • Vouchers/charter schools • Data driven instruction, individualized instruction • Standards based, Evidence based education • Accountability, NCLB, AYP
Criticism of Education • Slow to change, needs to modernize • Lowering of academic standards; based on the needs global marketplace. • Students are not prepared for real world demands, expectations. • Business does not lower standards or expectations but education does. • Top 10% and lowest 10% of students are supported, those in the middle are forgotten
Societal Changes that affect education: • Homeless students, students in economic crises • Inclusion • Funding crises • Community and educational culture is resistance to change
Global effects on education: • Necessity for a multilingual education • Global and national economic crises • Knowledge boom, shared information
Societal effects on education: • Baby boomers outnumber potential wage earners • wage earners need to be more productive • carrying capacity of Y generation and beyond • number of immigrants and transcontinental students
Science and Technological changes: • virtual education tied to AYP and NCLB regulations • AYP + virtual education = individualization • cyber schools, blackboard, remote instruction • Global learning centers, use of advanced technology – Skype
Science and Technological changes: • access and use of computers in the classroom • access to internet • cell phones commonplace • funding opportunities for technology • lack of tech support because of budget cuts
Full article http://www.answers.com/topic/technology-in-education-higher-education
• The rapid advance of globalization that is lowering international barriers and transforming the business world is also expanding the potential reach of colleges and universities. With sophisticated communication technologies, institutions of higher education are no longer limited to student markets or educational resources in their geographic regions. Likewise, the growing need for lifelong learning opportunities to keep pace with social, economic, and technological changes fuels demand for accessible alternatives to traditional real-time, campus-based instruction. In addition, competition among higher education institutions contributes to technology's advance within colleges and universities.
• Computers and telecommunications are the principal technologies reshaping higher education.
• Electronic mail, fax machines, the World Wide Web, CDROMs, and commercially developed simulations are altering the daily operations.
• The most important educational technology challenge facing colleges and universities is
o First, helping faculty integrate information technology into their teaching.
o The second most important challenge is providing adequate user support.
• The Internet as we know it can trace back to 1994. Prior to that, the Internet was confined mainly to inter-college and DARPA site communications. • The Internet has a true global impact, touching almost every aspect of our lives, from commerce to communications to weather and climate change to political changes around the world. • Economically, the Internet has changed how we do business, from shopping (e.g., Amazon.com) to shipping and package tracking (e.g., FedEx) to how we attend school (e.g., online universities. • For leaders, in all areas (K-12, Higher Ed, and business), controlling Internet access and use can be like "herding cats". Internet access and ways of doing business can either overwhelm leaders, or they can control the Internet through judicious allocation of resources. • The future of the Internet: it doesn't appear to be slowing down at all, and some parts of the U.S. and countries around the world still don't have Internet access. The demand will increase, and requirements for greater bandwidth, faster access, and better computers, along with increased demand for electricity as Internet provider facilities grow and more people purchase computers, require greater care in allocation of resources to meet the greater demand for electricity.
Complete Information: http://www.finaid.org/educators/history.phtml
• 1990 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990, elimination of student aid eligibility at high default schools
• 1991 Veterans' Educational Assistance Amendments of 1991
• 1992 Higher Education Amendments of 1992, added FAFSA and required it to be free, added Direct Lending pilot project, added unsubsidized Stafford loans, replaced two federal need analysis formulas -- the Pell Grant Formula and the Congressional Methodology -- with a single Federal Need Analysis Methodology, changed definition of "independent student", added community service requirement to Federal Work-Study, eliminated PLUS loan limits
• 1993 Student Loan Reform Act, established direct lending, added income contingent repayment
• 1993 National Service Trust Act, AmeriCorps provides education grants for students age 17 and over who perform community service
• 1994 US 4th District Court of Appeals decision in Podberesky v. Kirwan requires that evidence of past discrimination must be clearly evident in a case involving a race-based scholarship
• 1994 Establishment of FinAid web site
• 1995 First free large online scholarship search database (FastWeb)
• 1996 California voters adopt Proposition 209, banning the use of race in college admissions and financial aid at California public colleges and universities
• 1996 US 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ruling in Hopwood v. Texas prohibits the use of race or ethnicity in admissions and financial aid in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi
• 1996 FTC Project ScholarScam launches crackdown on scholarship scams
• 1997 Need-Based Educational Aid Antitrust Protection Act of 1997 (limits exchange of financial information between colleges) 1997The introduction of FAFSA on the Web (fafsa.ed.gov) in 1997-1998, the online version of the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, leads to significant shift from paper applications to electronic applications
• 1997 Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, P.L. 105-34 (Hope Scholarship, Lifetime Learning Tax Credit, Education IRAs, income exclusion for $5,250 in employer education benefits, tax deduction for up to $2,500 in student loan interest).
• 1998 Higher Education Amendments of 1998 renamed SSIG as LEAP, created GEAR UP, suspended student aid eligibility for drug convictions, and added Extended Repayment.
• 1998 Default Rate Changes. A steady decline in national student loan default rates began in with several changes introduced by the Higher Education Amendments of 1998
• 1999 Direct Lending introduces loan discounts, 1% reduction in origination fees and 0.25% interest rate reduction for auto debit, to compete with loan discounts offered by FFELP lenders.
Leaders of the K – 12 educational changes • Maria Montessori - the Montessori method began in the early 1900’s but became a major force in American mainstream education pedagogy In the 1990’s • William Spady Change leader – Sociologist and father of (Outcomes Based Education) OBE movement - Also known as standards based movement or competency based education
• 1990: Cell phones become affordable for the average person. They come in a variety of bulky formats and cell phone service is expensive. • Early 2000s: Cell phone become more sophisticated. New features and options are added. • The Apple iPhone makes its first appearance in 2007. SmartPhones, marking a time when cell phones do more than just make phone calls, are here to stay. • Impact on business: easier to stay in touch. The "Mobile office" becomes a reality. • Leader options for managing change: in business, managers issue cell phones, Blackberrys, and other PDAs to help their employees function while mobile. Businesses, in an effort to keep up with customer demands and expectations, can offer "any time, anywhere" services, like mobile banking and online shopping from a phone. In higher education, classes can now be delivered not only online, but through the use of mobile applications. This allows for "any time, anywhere" learning, without the need to pull out a laptop. Colleges can now use "e-mail blasts" to students to provide them with urgent messages (weather, on-campus threats) via phone text messages. In the K-12 environment, students have the ability to text parents (and vice versa) for after-school pick-up or other urgent needs.
Trends in Education: • Outcome Based Education (OBE): “What have I learned?” • Cooperative learning • Whole language – reading from the whole to the parts • School based management: By parents, teachers, principals • Restructuring of schools • Block scheduling • “Free market” schools – charter schools, school choice
Criticism of Education: • Science illiteracy • Passive learning • Teacher lectures, homework driven, worksheets • Product approach, “knowing,” skill and drill • Special Education – pull out • Standardized testing • Product-oriented testing, low reliability, unfair to minorities • Portfolio assessments as an alternative to standardized tests • Grouping of students by ability
Societal Changes that affect education: • Increased divorce rate • Increased single parent homes • Increased number of females in the workplace • Teachers take on parental roles: counseling, needed attention, role models
Global effects on Education: • Economic strength will become more important the military strength for superpower countries • Leadership in Science & technology will determine economic leadership • More engineering degrees at U.S. college are going to foreign students • Students need foreign language background • Schools in K-12 focus on broad, general knowledge • Specialized knowledge in technical schools, graduate schools
Societal effect on education: • Growth in minority populations – immigration, greater diversity. Increase in Hispanic population • Economic shift from an industrial manufacturing economy to service, information, and high technology – different types of skills needed. • Knowledge base expansion
6. International Lawyer 7. Industrial Designer 8. Physical Therapist 9. Management Consultant 10. Mechanical Engineer ________________________________ 6. International Lawyer Average salary for a fifth-year associate: $75,000 to $150,000 Partner: $200,000 and up Training: Law degree, with course work in international law; fluency in foreign languages helpful • Twenty years ago, the term international lawyer was reserved for legal scholars and diplomats who negotiated treaties between countries. Today it's typically applied to lawyers who help companies and individuals put together business and investment deals that transcend national borders as well as litigators who represent clients when such deals unravel. Demand for these attorneys is growing in proportion to changes in the global marketplace -- most notably, the pending economic unification of Western Europe and the collapse of Communism in the Eastern bloc. 7. Industrial Designer Average salary: $55,000 Top performer: $90,000 and up Training: Undergraduate degree in industrial design or architecture • The recent commercial success of such innovatively designed products as the Ford Taurus and Black & Decker's Spacemaker line of home appliances has helped convince corporate America that good design pads the bottom line. A recent Gallup poll showed that 60% of senior management credit industrial design for the success of any given product. In the 1980s, openings for industrial designers have leaped 40%, while their salaries have doubled. Industrial designers develop all manner of things, from stethoscopes to sleek new cars, from filing cabinets to fishing poles. 8. Physical Therapist Average salary for hospital therapist: $30,000 to $42,000 Private practitioner: $100,000 to $120,000 Training: B.S. or M.S. in physical therapy; must pass state licensing exam • Physical therapy is the ultimate hands-on profession -- but the hands are short these days. By the year 2000, the need for therapists will increase 57% to 107,000, estimates the Department of Labor, which dubs the occupation one of the 10 fastest growing of the decade. • Fitness buffs and the elderly are two expanding groups helping to fuel demand for therapists. Thirty- and forty-something weekend athletes are beating a path to the clinic door complaining of bursitis, tendinitis, sprains and strains 9. Management Consultant Salary after five years: $100,000 to $120,000 Top performer: $250,000 and up Training: M.B.A. preferred, plus two years' experience in corporate research, marketing or management • In 1989, management consulting was the top career choice of business school grads. Yet there are still plenty of jobs to go around. From 1985-1990, the consulting industry has more than doubled to a $13.5 billion business employing about 80,000 people, according to James Kennedy, the editor of Consultants News, an industry newsletter. And Kennedy projects continuing growth of 20% a year throughout the 1990s, as corporate America searches for strategies to contend with rapidly changing technology and a tough marketplace at home and abroad. 10. Mechanical Engineer Average salary: $40,000 to $50,000 Top performer: $80,000 and up Training: Undergraduate or master's degree in mechanical engineering • By 1996, given current enrollment trends in engineering programs, the shortfall is expected to hit 18,000, reports the National Science Foundation. One of the primary functions of the nation's 225,000 mechanical engineers is to design power-producing machines, such as jet engines and gas turbines, as well as power-using machines, such as air-conditioning and drilling equipment • There's a big drive on in the auto industry for engineers who can develop anti-lock brake systems, says Doug Sharrow, president of Sharrow & Associates, a Detroit recruiting firm. Big oil companies are looking for mechanical engineers to maintain and upgrade pumps and motors in their refineries.
1. Chef 2. Health-Care Cost Manager 3. Computer Graphics Artist 4. Environmental Engineer 5. Software Developer _________________________________ 1. Chef: Average salary: $35,000 Executive chef: Up to $200,000 Training: Associate's degree from two-year culinary arts program or three- year paid apprenticeship • Women in the workforce is climbing • 45% Americans dined out minimally once a week 2. Health-Care Cost Manager: Average salary: $75,000 Top executive: $200,000 and up Training: Master's degree in business or public health, plus experience in hospital or HMO administration • With medical expenditures by private industry up 30% from 1987-1990, putting the brake on runaway health-care costs was a big priority for corporate America • Recent innovations: company-owned pharmacies (which fill prescriptions at low cost) • Introduction of corporate wellness programs (which offer seminars to teach workers how to prevent or cope with health risks). 3. Computer Graphics Artist Salary after five years: $30,000 to $60,000 Top freelancer: $75,000 to $150,000 Training: B.A. in art or design preferred, plus computer courses • The latest generation of commercial artists is abandoning brushes and paint to work in a new medium: the personal computer. With the introduction of software specifically geared to their needs, the number of artists producing their work electronically has quintupled over the past two years to hit 51,432, according to TypeWorld, a trade journal. • Electronic artists use the computer for a variety of jobs, from setting type to creating graphs, charts and color illustrations, most often for magazines, newspapers and other print media. Many are employed by publishers and ad agencies, entry-level $18,000/yr. 4. Environmental Engineer Average salary: $40,000 to $55,000 Top performer: $100,000 and up Training: B.S. in civil, chemical, mechanical or environmental engineering; M.S. in environmental engineering • Earth Day was not just a one-shot deal. Growing public concern over problems ranging from the oil-fouled beaches of Alaska to the polluted air of Eastern Europe is pushing up demand for environmental engineers. • But fewer than 2% to 3% of all engineers -- less than 50,000 -- now have the training and experience required for this speciality, says William Anderson, executive director of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers. He adds: ''There are 10 openings for every one environmental engineering graduate.'' Environmental engineers usually specialize in what's known as either clean or dirty work. • Eric Flicker, president of Spotts Stevens & McCoy, an engineering consulting firm in Reading, Pa.: ''Guys specializing in hazardous waste -- the real dirty work of this profession -- are already commanding 25% more in salary than other engineers.'' 5. Software Developer Average salary: $50,000 to $60,000 Top performer: $100,000 Training: B.S. in applied math, engineering and computer science • Here's a career where a computer hacker can make real bucks -- legally. Software design and engineering is the top growth area in the high-tech field. Last year employment at the top 100 personal-computer software companies shot up 23.5%, notes Jeffrey Tarter, editor of Softletter, a Watertown, Mass. newsletter. And the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment predicts that more than 100,000 new jobs will be created for software professionals by the end of the decade.
• Employers were requiring employees to have a higher level of education than a high school diploma. • College education was becoming a norm. • Programs were developed and funded to make education accessible to students in poverty and assisted to develop their skills to become successful college students (ACT 101 program in Pennsylvania). • Minority population- colleges were introducing and supporting diversity on campus. Funding was created to support this change in college demographic to resemble our country’s demographics.
• Internet – Students were able to research information quickly, but needed to learn how to determine what was credible information. Plagiarism becomes a concern for many colleges. • Students shifted from 5.25 floppy disks (early 90s) to the 3.5 disks (mid 90s). • Email – Professors, classmates and the college can communicate with the student. Students can contact faculty 24/7. • Cell phones – mid 90s students were entering college with cell phone; however, didn’t gain popularity until the late 90s.
1990’s is a time of Science and Technological changes: • Internet: New way to work – “log in from home” World Wide Web • Email – able to post news and personal opinions • Stay in touch, new connections: Beepers Cell phones – from large to small – fit in pockets • Children now have their own phones – able to stay connected to parents • MP3 players – digitally compressed music files – Napster • DVD players replace VHS
• Laptop computers in their current form made their first appearance in the early 1980s. They cost about $8,000.00; but low-end laptops can now be purchased for as little as $200.00.
• Laptop computers have doubled in capacity and capabilities every three years (Moore's Law), leading to improved computing power in a very short time span.
• Laptop computers have found their way into all walks of life, including the K-12 environment. Probably the most notable influence of laptop computers in the hands of children is the One laptop Per Child (OLPC) Project, headed by Nicholas Negroponte, who advocates for providing laptops to all children, at a cost of $100 per laptop. The first viable laptop in this program makes its appearance in 2006.
• Laptop computers have reached into all aspect of daily life, and have allowed us to become a more mobile society. Economically, we can telecommute, which means reduced road traffic and pollution, saved time because of no commuting, worldwide reach for meetings, "any time, anywhere" meetings, "any time, anywhere" education, saving on tuition, room and board.
• Leaders can control laptop and mobility issues by leading the way with allowing telecommuting for jobs (the Bay Area in San Francisco, CA leads the way with an initiative to reduce pollution by mandating telecommuting). Higher education leaders can mandate the design of new buildings to incorporate inter-connectivity and access (the University of Chicago's law school was designed around wired access in the mid-1990s, and UC Davis initiated "Net 21" in 1996, a project to wire their entire campus to serve the student population with access points all over the campus).
• 1971 Dynabook - first desktop prototype. •1993 Digital Books, Inc. first digital book format. •1998-1999 first reader - Rocket ebook, eReader.com. •2005 Bookbboon.com launched allowing download of textbooks. •Electronic versions of textbooks become available. Provides an inexpensive way to buy textbooks. • Challenge in classroom - students don't have textbooks with them unless, they have a laptop and access to the Internet. • Amazon.com's Kindle makes it appearance in 2007. Other e-readers (Nook, Sony Reader, etc.) soon follow. • Economically, the cost of producing books goes down. • Globally, the decline in demand for trees for paper decreases clear-cutting forests.
Cell phones make their first appearance.
For more information on a history of cell phones, click on the link below.