Here is C block's timeline for the Enlightenment and its Revolutions (SciRev, Enlightenment, French Rev., Napoleon, Global Enlightenment [your research presentations] and, perhaps, Economic Revolutions [slave trade and industrial revolution]).
Created by rgertmenian on Oct 22, 2008
Last updated: 03/11/10 at 07:54 PM
Having liberated Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, Bolivar decided to liberate Upper Peru from Spain. He brought his army, mostly composed of everyday, ordinary South Americans, to Bolivia, where he proceeded to defeat the Spanish. In gratitude for granting its independence, Bolivia, then known as Upper Peru, named itself after Bolivar. This occured in 1825. This is only one of the many examples of the nationalism that Bolívar instilled in his followers. He, overall, brought the best of the reform from Europe to South America, and this sense of nationalism was one of the components to what he brought to South America. Nationalism was important to Bolívar because it not only helped him retain control and motivate his troops, but it also enabled him to have the full support of the South American people. The photo is statue of Bolívar showing his people's pride in him. It shows this through its sheer size, its immortality, and the commanding look on his face. This statue clearly, then, reflects the nationalism that so many felt for him.
Simon Bolivar assembled an army of 9,000 in Peru to attack the Spanish army....
In this year, Simon Bolivar attacked Bogota, the capital of New Granada, called Bogota, and defeated the Spanish forces that were occupying the city. This was the beginning of the formation of new republics that were free of Spanish control and influence. This marked the end of Bolivar's conquest to free the northern part of South America and the beginning of his conquest of the southern part.
Muhammad Ali was the son of a tobacco merchant, who rose through the ranks to become the second-in-command of an Ottoman army that was sent to repel Napoleon’s invading army in Egypt. After defeating Napoleon’s troops, in the chaos left behind, Ali was named governor of Egypt. This shows that, like Napoleon, Ali knew and had experienced the value of merit, something that had gained more importance since the French Revolution. As governor of Egypt, Ali restructured his land and people after realizing that in order to be a competitor with European countries, such as France, he would need to modernize by adopting some Enlightenment values. He used science to make better irrigation systems, and he instituted a draft for peasants, and this army of peasants, soon grew to be very powerful. In 1820, Ali and his peasant army started to conquer Sudan, and this would become the beginning of Ali’s campaigns and victories in other countries. His conquering of Sudan was important because it showed the success of his use of Revolutionary concepts such as the army of peasants, and the fact that a man of relatively low birth could become a victorious commander. By 1831, he had invaded Crete, Syria, and part of Arabia, but was stopped by European forces that made Ali limit himself to only Egypt.
Simon Bolivar, one of South America's greatest generals, won independence for many nations, like Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezula. Inheriting his parents fortune, he came from the upper Bolivar hoped to form a union of new nations, known as the Gran Colombia, which would share a relationship with the United Kingdom as well as a hate against Spanish power. The Republic was formed and in 1819, Bolivar became the president. The Gran Colombia didn't last long; it was split into three different nations (present day Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. 1824 marked a very important date, when all Spanish power ceased. Bolivar's victory marked a historic defeat when nations could rule themselves. One of Bolivar's most important political accomplishments include the constitution he drew up the following year for the nation Bolivia, named in his honor of course!
This was the most famous doceument that Simon Bolivar ever wrote. In it he made constituinal repulics all throughout Latin america. He envisioned that these republics would be similar to that of England, which had an upper housed elected by birth, another house elected by merit, and a president chosen to govern for life. These views on government were very similar to those of Montesquiue, who stated that England had a strong government because the power was seperate.
On this date, Jose Morelos finished writing a constitution that encompassed the concepts of the Mexican Revolution that included equal rights under the law and freedom from royalist oppression. It signified the official success of the revolution and the abolishment of the last trace of the old order in Mexico.
In 1813, Father Jose Maria Morelos of Mexico, one of the leaders of the rebellion against Spain, got together the Congress of Chilpancingo, where he and regional representatives of rebel-controlled areas in Mexico held a meeting, where they came up with the Sentiments of the Nation. In it, they discussed many reform that were parallel to the that stemmed from the overthrow of the Old Order in France, including social equality (no more ethnic a republican government, and less powerful but voluntary Church contributions. Like the National Assembly during the beginning of the French Revolution, when the Third Estate rose to power, the Congress of Chilpancingo laid out the reform plan, the first steps toward declaring independence from the corrupt Spanish government. -Grace
Simon Bolivar had a life riddled with death. When he was a young child his parents both died. As a young man, he traveled to Eurpoe marrying the daughter of a Caracas born nobleman. Soon after they returned to Caracas, she died. That was when Bolivar swore to liberate Venezuela. When he returned there Bolivar joined a patriot group that seized Caracas in 1810 and declared it an independent country. He then traveled to the UK in search of aid, but the Brittish only said that they woiuld stay neutral in this matter. He returned to Venezuela and after he took over a patriot army, recaptured Caracas in 1813 from the Spanish, who had regained control after Francisco de Miranda surrendered. After the takeover Bolivar became the dictator of the country.
Jose Morelos called the Congress of Chilpancingo where he outlined a document called "Sentiments of the Nation." The document established his goals for the revolution. These included a freely elected governement, abolishing slavery and distinction, and creating a fair taxation system. These congress meeting led to the formal declaration of independence a year later
In 1812, Simon Bolivar wrote one of his first public documents, known as the Cartagena Manifesto. It was written during the Colombian and Venezuelan War of Independence and described the causes of the Fall of the First Republic. The main causes that led to the fall included the use of a federal system, bad administration of the public income by the government, the impossibility of establishing a permanent army, and the opposing influence of the Roman Catholic Church. Like France, Venezuela took its own attempt at independence and democracy but failed. Simon Bolivar comments on some of the issues that cause this pattern.
After being called for arrest by the New Spanish government, Father Miguel Hidalgo and a group of mestizo farmers and creollos, or Spanish blooded peoples, killed the guards coming for him. Father Hidalgo had been thinking of ways to take over the Spanish rule in Mexico, and had been angry about the law keeping creole people out of the government because of their birthplace of Mexico. In order to kill the guards coming for him, Hidalgo was forced to use the creollos as protection. He persuaded them through his most famous speech, El Grito de Dolores, where he presented the of independence. He claimed that their only choice was to take over the Spanish rule in Mexico. This radical movement can be compared with the separation of the Third Estate from the Estates General, because the Third Estate had not been well represented in the French government, like the creollos, and decided to completely split off from the other two estates.
This is a picture of Miguel Hidalgo, in his speech to his Mexican Revolutionary followers. People of all who wanted independence from Spain listened to him speak. Throughout the past 300 years, there had been many beliefs of opposition of Spanish rule in Mexico. Yet there had been no hope that they would be able to succeed in a revolution. But when France, who was in a similar situation (a very strict caste system in which the lower status people opposed the nobles and clergy) succeeded in a revolution in 1789, it gave hope to the first revolutionary leader of Mexico, Miguel Hidalgo. And it was in this speech in 1810 that he expressed that hope to the angry Mexicans. He said to them, "My children, this day comes to us as a new dispensation. Are you ready to receive it? Will you be free? Will you make the effort to recover from the hated Spaniards the lands stolen from your forefathers three hundred years ago?" This speech provided the hope necessary to succeed in the revolution of the Spanish Elite.
On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla gave a speech called El Grito de Dolores or "The Cry of Pain." In this speech, he encouraged the all of the people of Mexico, the natives, the slaves, the rich, and the poor, to unite and rebel against Spain, who was ruling over them at the time. This speech marked the beginning of the Mexican War of Independence, and today, September 16th is celebrated as Mexico's Independence day. It is an important date because it was the first time that someone in Mexico had decided to unite all types of people to revolt against the unjust Spanish ruler, or peninsulares, who held all the power. This shows that they were supporting the Enlightenment values of equality for all and the that the role of the government is to improve and protect the lives of its citizens, which the Spanish government was not doing for the Mexicans.
On this day, Father Miguel Hidalgo gave one of his most famous revolutionary speeches. After planning to overthrow the creole
Miguel Hidalgo is considered the father of the Mexican Revolution because he applied the principles of the Enlightenment to the situation in Mexico and began the quest for freedom from Spain. In France, the overthrow of the Old Order created all races equal and abolished the Third Estate. In Mexico, native people were considered inferior and thus were poorer than those of Spanish origin. Similarly to the members of the Third Estate, the native people were poorer and had less opportunity compared to those in higher Estates/Castes. Hidalgo wanted freedom entirely from Spain (similar to the way the French wanted freedom from a monarchy), but he also wanted equal rights and opportunities for those of native origin. He gained support not only from the natives but also from members of secret societies that formed after the abdication of King Ferdinand VII by Napoleon. Some supported the King while others wanted complete independence, as did Hidalgo. Writings from famous French Revolutionary thinkers were smuggled into Mexico from Spain, providing the and beliefs that Hidalgo shared with the Enlightenment. He used these and applied them to the situation in Mexico, using the natives rage to fuel his revolution. Hidalgo, even though he was soon defeated, inspired others to continue his movement for freedom and equality.
Napoleans appointment of his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as king of spain enraged South Americans such as Simon Bolivar because it demonstrated Frances egoism. After the destruction of the old order, France's of equality after the destruction of the old order only extended to people with in their empire. Compared to the rest of the world, France believed they were the supreme nation. This sense of superiority over South America infuriated the creoles, aristocrats, like Simon Bolivar and gave everybody a target for their rage. Amoung many others, Simon Bolivar unified people under the common goal of overthrowing the French. With this new sense of nationalism adopted from the French and a great leader like Simon Bolivar, the Latin Americans got their independence between 1810-1820.
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (more commonly known as Muhammad Ali of Egypt) rose to power because of the French Revolution. In 1801, the French, under Napoleon’s command, occupied Egypt, which was held by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans sent Muhammad Ali and a group of 300 men to fight the French out. Once the French were gone, and the former Mamluk leadership was disintegrated, there was a major power vacuum. Through his political prowess, Muhammad Ali managed to become the Wali (governor) of Egypt in 1805. As the governor, Muhammad Ali instated many reforms which are considered to have made Egypt one of the most developed states outside of Europe at the time, including state-directed educational institutions, teaching hospitals, roads and canals, and factories. In Muhammad Ali’s final years, he became increasingly paranoid to the point where his ministers feared to tell him any bad news. He became ill with tuberculosis, and was becoming senile. Finally, Muhammad Ali’s ailing health got the better of him, and he died on August 2, 1849. In a sense, Muhammad Ali owed his leadership to the French Revolution. Had the French Revolution not occurred, Napoleon would not have been able to gain such a high place in the military (because he was of the 3rd estate, and members of the 3rd estate would not have been able to reach such high positions before the Revolution), and would not have invaded Egypt. Had the invasion not happened, the Mamluks would still be in power, and Muhammad Ali would have no power vacuum to fill, and would not have been able to take power.
With the absence of French authority that had occupied Egypt from 1798-1801, Muhammad Ali, a former Albanian soldier of the Ottomans sent to defeat the French, took advantage of the chaotic power struggle and near anarchy using Egyptian merchants and scholars for support and was named governor of Egypt by the Ottomans 1805. This rise from insignificant soldier to esteemed ruler was a clear example of meritocracy rather than blood or advantage, the usual regime of the Ottomans-- and one of their biggest downfalls. The overthrow of traditional power can be seen as a direct result of the French occupation in Egypt because human equality was one of their most celebrated from the enlightenment and by Napoleon in his rule. The nationalism expressed in the French's diverse army was something that Muhammad attributed to their success and used their example to improve his own army. He brought in French experts to train his armies similarly. Also, another way that Muhammad sought to contend with the Europeans was to send Egyptian students to France to study from their scholars in an exchange program, emphasizing the importance in knowledge and the world-wide spread of France's enlightenment and revolution.
In 1805, after substantial turmoil and struggle for power within Egypt, Muhammad Ali took leadership of the country. Inspired by the French military tactics as well as the power of the European countries in general, Muhammad Ali initialized modernization within Egypt. He is responsible for a reorganized and revitalized military, a more independent government, an accessible and encouraged system of education, and a revamped economy that was on par with many of the European power of the time. Muhammad Ali is often called "the father of modern Egypt", because he was able to bring all of these changed to Egypt during his rule form 1805 until his death in 1848. His time as Pasha, or ruler, of Egypt marked a turning point in history, where the and strategies that occurred during the French Revolution begun spreading across the Middle East and the rest of the world.
Not only did Muhammad Ali use some of the principles and of the French Revolution to strengthen both Egypt's Military and Economy, but he recruited and enlisted former French participants of the Revolution to help him move forward. Among these was Colonel Seve who introduced French Techniques and Drills which, along with a bunch of new troops, resulted in a new powerful army, a force. Eventually, Egypt's new army became too threatening though, and had to be contained by the Europeans, who had diplomats convince a cut down from a force of 100,000 men to 18,000. Economically, Muhammad opened various schools (medical, engineering) and made Egypt a huge cotton producer. This had some both positive and negative effects though because while it gave Egypt power and money, it caused the people to be overworked and unhappy. The date 1805-1848 is the time that he ruled in Egypt.
Muhammed Ali was a ruler who lived in Egypt and sought to make his people and his empire more competitive with the powerful European empires. After the French withdrawl in 1801, Muhammed "pulled a Napolean" and defied his Ottoman superiors and took over Egypt. He then looked to revolutionary France for a model of how to create a strong empire. From them he learned that the key to to staying in power is a strong military. He also took their advice and opened schools.
Muhammad Ali Pasha was the governor of Egypt from 1805-1849. He is widely considered the “Father of Modern Egypt” because of the efforts he put into modernization and industrialization. He was able to do this because of the good example Napoleon made during the French Revolution. Napoleon indirectly helped Ali into power and laid out for his a set of guidelines for gaining support and reform. Napoleon invaded Egypt and then was forced to pull out three years later because of pressure from the British and the Ottoman Empire. This left a power vacuum, which Muhammad Ali was able to take advantage of and become the new governor. He appealed to the people’s interests, gaining their backing, while being financed by the wealthy merchant This gave him the support and money he needed to improve education and the quality of public life, like Napoleon. He also built up his army like the European nations and used it to further his popularity. By following Napoleon’s advice, he was able to better his country, like any good revolutionary should.
In 1804 Haiti was distinguished as the first black independent republic in the world. Led by Toussaint l'Ouverture, an ex-slave and revolutionary, Haitians had finally won their battle for the equal rights they deserved. Gaining their independence from France, l'Ouverture was declared governor of the new powerful colony. During the Haitian Revolution the colony came in contact with Great Britain and the United States, two powerful nations, to try and rebuild the collapsed economy. During these beginning years the colony began to grow more powerful and a little wealthier due to the strong leadership of Toussaint l'Ouverture. Due to the French Revolution and Enlightenment events like this were able to occur; discriminated groups fighting for their rights. Through the enlightenment and French Revolution people like the Haitians were able to stand up for themselves and fight for the rights that they willingly deserved.
Napoleon Bonaparte created the Civil Code. The Civil Code provided equality for all the citizens. Everyone one in society was allowed to pursue economic success. For example, he aboloshied surdom. This made it illegal for the nobles to not pay the surfs who farmed their land. Thanks to Napoleon Bonaparte, the French Revolution was preserved and not destroyed.
"A Vindication Of The Rights Of Woman" is a book written by British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft. One of the main arguements is that women should be given education so they can contribute to society. She also asserted that men and women were subject to the same moral law.
The publication of the "Vindication of the Rights of Women" was the first of many literary arguements in which the revolutionary beliefs could be applied to women and not just men. They stated that it would contradict these enlightenment to not agree that women were scientifically no different from men. Using Rene Descartes tool of rationalism, men can find no concrete reason of why women are inferior human beings to them. Marry Wollstonecraft, the author of these radical concluded that the acts of government women had participated in were actually done just as well, if not better than men. Therefore, they should overcome the oppression men had forced upon them just as the men had overcome the monarchy. Women would not have been able to speak out against their male masters if it was not for the mixing of and new meritocracy that France was becoming. If someone from the Thrid Estate could hold a position of power, why not an aristocratic woman? Morever, why not any woman? This time of chaos was every man (or woman) for themselves. Females took the neccessary steps to protect themselves and evidently found themselves. Without such a publication women would still be just as disrespected as they were in that time.
Mary Wollstonecraft published one of the first works that agrued the importance of femminism in 1792. In her work she explained that the brain that was in the skull of a man was no different to that of a women's. This meant that women and men were of equal intelligence and deserved equal rights and status. The she explained we just as radical as Galileo's new cosmology and upset many different people. "The Vindication of the Rights of Woman" was a true seed of the femminism in our world today and sparked the views that would eventually destroy gender barriers that were the foundations to society. Without this work it is unknown if anyone would have ever challenged male superiority.
Toussaint l'Ourveture, born a slave in San Domingue, headed a revolution in Haiti. The African slaves, that were brought to Haiti by the French, rebelled agaisnt their white masters. They wanted more freedom and equality. During 3 years they fought against the white masters and burnt plantations. Finally in 1801, Haiti was declared an independent country by France.
In 1789, the newly-formed National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. This declared that all citizens had certain basic rights and the state could not legislate those rights away. French female playwright, Olympe de Gouges, questioned whether or not this document declared rights of the female citizen as well, so she drafted her own document: Declaration of Rights of Women and the Female Citizen. It stated that women should receive all equal rights as men. In 1791, she proposed her document to the National Assembly who ignored and rejected her. She was beheaded two years later after her proposal for continuing to be outspoken about this issue. The main point of her document was to assert that women had a strong capability to reason and make appropriate decisions and was an equal partner to man. Therefore, she believed that they should have all the same rights as men. The adoption of the Declaration of Man opened the doors for her document and future of the equality between men and women.
The slave Insurrection of 1791 was led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. He drove the Spanish, British and French armies successively and successfully from the island of Saint Domingue. This was the start of Haiti's freedom and independence as a country. The significance of this is that not only France was becoming equal, but now slaves were being freed and all people were being treated equal. The France revolution is very similar to the Haiti revolution because it started out small, but grew to a much broader scale. Toussaint L'ouverture was also compared to Napoleon and Napoleon was even accused of imitating the methods of Toussaint....to be continued...
.... in France and all of the French colonies. The club “Friends of the Black” wanted to abolish slavery. At the time, the Island was called San Dominique. The island had a lot of sugar plantations. The plantation owners owned the slaves. Toussaint’s slave owner was very liberal. Toussaint was a house slave, and his master allowed him to read. Toussaint especially enjoyed reading books from the Philosophers of the Enlightenment. He was inspired by their and what his father taught him, which was similar to the of the enlightenment. His father taught him that he was more than a slave and that he had dignity and a brain. After slavery was reinstated, Toussaint became one of the most famous generals ever by leading his fellow slaves in a rebellion. Later on the Jacobins, who are famous for the reign on terror voted to abolish slavery, because they wanted to take the revolution as far as they could. When Napoleon was in power, he again reinstated slavery. The war started up again. In 1803, Napoleon and Toussaint agreed to a deal - Napoleon acknowledged Haiti was an independent country, but Toussaint had to retire from service. However, Napoleon broke the deal and imprisoned and killed Toussaint.
Toussaint l'Ouverture gathered the black slaves of the island of Haiti and launched an attack against the French. This showed the influence of the Revolution in France in 1789. The of the Revolution were brought to the island, where the slaves, or who can be called the 3rd Estate of the island, saw that it was possible to overthrow the goverment.
Mary Wollstonecraft, a well known advocate of woman's rights, published a revolutionary work. Here she gathered analysis based of friends such as Locke and Rousseau, stating that women currently have a lesser role in society, and that they are capable of much more.
Olympe De Gouges was a French writer and women's rights activist at the time of the French Revolution. She was a founder of modern feminism and was eventually guillotined at the height of the "Reign of Terror." Her works include the Déclaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen, Response to the Justification by Maximilien Robespierre, addressed to Jerome Petion, President of the Convention, and Letter to the People, or Project for a Patriotic Bank by a Female Citizen.
Toussaint l'Ouverture was a slave in the French colony of Haiti, born in 1743. Unlike most other slaves, Toussaint's master allowed him to be educated, and he eagerly learned to read and write in French. It was very rare that slaves be educated, so Toussaint was a natural choice as a leader of the slave revolt in Haiti. His intellect and cleverness were illustrated through his military tactics, in which he often outmaneuvered the enemy and was finally victorious in his efforts to free the Haitian slaves. The image is of Toussaint's signature. A person's signature is individual, and even now a signature is associated with power (ex: celebrities get asked for their signatures, signatures help and safeguard credit cards and purchases, etc.). Also, in the 18th century, no commoner--especially not a slave--would have a signature, because there would be no reason to have one. Toussaint's signature illustrates the rise in power that commoners experienced during the Enlightenment and as a result of the French Revolution.