Recent Event Highlights: Women's Rights Movement, States' Rights, and 18 more...
Created by rutter on Aug 28, 2009
Last updated: 03/05/10 at 07:08 PM
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These are just cases where they were testing the three admendments to see if the Supreme Court would do anything about them. They had a few different cases where the African American people were denied into an opera, also a hotel and a few other instances. It’s important because they wanted to see if they would follow through with the rights they made saying that they had all the same rights as everyone else. The admendments are what gave them there rights as citizens in the United States. "Civil Rights Cases (1883)." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help. — Infoplease.com. Web. 31 Aug. 2009. .
Soon after the American Civil war the Jim Crow Laws started. These are where most states passed an anti-African American legislation. This is laws that discriminated against African Americans. These laws were made after they got their rights as citizens. The Jim Crow Laws segregated public schools and the use of facilities such as restaurants, theaters, hotels, cinemas and public baths. Trains and buses were also segregated and in many states marriage between whites and African American people. "Jim Crow Laws." Spartacus Educational - Home Page. Web. 31 Aug. 2009. .
In the well-known election of 1876, the canidates were Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden. This was one of the most disputed presidential elections ever. Samuel J. Tilden won the popular vote but because of a political dispute with Oregon's electoral votes, they were awarded to Hayes which gave him the victory. He won by one electoral vote. Hayes was put into presidency even though he was Republican. It was also significant because it was the first time there was a major problem with a presidential election. "United States presidential election, 1876 -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 25 Aug. 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1876.
The 13th admendment was basically abolishing slavery. This was doing away with slavery or involuntary servicing. This is unless it is for punishment by law. The 14th admendment was made for citizenship rights. It gives all citzens their rights. If they are an American citizen, born here or adopted as an American, they all get the same rights equally. The 15th admendment is allowing African Americans to get the same right to vote as everyone else. It cannot be denied by the color of their skin. These three amendments are important because it basically ended slavery and gave them the right to vote. It was giving them their rights as citizens. These three admendments give egual rights to citzens. "Notes on the Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net." Index Page - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net. Web. 28 Aug. 2009. .
The first Klan was created in 1865. The klan was formed by Tennessee veterans from the Confederate Army. Groups started forming throughout the South. The main purpose of the KKK was to restore white supremacy after the American Civil War. The Klan rebelled by assaulting, murdering and intimidating freed slaves and white Republicans. "Ku Klux Klan." 2 Sep 2009 .
The Emancipation Proclamation were two orders that were given by President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War. The first order was given on September 22, 1862 and the second on January 1, 1863. The first ordered that all slaves be free in states that were not part of the Union by January 1, 1863. The second order listed 10 specific states that the first order would take place in. This was a monumental time because this freed all the slaves in the United States as soon as it was put into effect. This was a huge impact on the government because it helped the north win the Civil War by crippling the south's manpower. It also impacted the economy because it brought many African Americans to work. "Emancipation Proclamation -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 25 Aug. 2009. .
In 1860, probably of the greatest presidents this nation has ever seen was elected. Abraham Lincoln defeated John Bell, Stephen A. Douglas, and John C. Breckinridge in the 1860 election. Lincoln won with 180 electoral votes and was a member of the Republican Party. This was a significant election because Lincoln, who was against slavery, was elected shortly before the Civil War. If Lincoln would have not been elected, the south could have won the war. If Lincoln was not elected, slavery could still be legal in the south. "United States presidential election, 1860 -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 25 Aug. 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1860.
Dred Scott vs. Sandford was a decision made by the Supreme Court that stated that people of African descent that were slaves, or descendents of slaves, would never become citizens. They were also not protected by the United States Constitution. The Surpreme Court also stated that due to the fact that the slaves weren't citizens, they could not sue in court. Finally the court said that the slave could not be taken away from their owner without due process. Dred Scott was a slave in Virginia from 1795 to 1800. He tried to purchase his own freedom but was denied by his owner, John Emerson. "Dred Scott v. Sandford -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
The Women's Rights Movement was exactly what it sounds like. Women were tired of not being treated equally along with the men. The first women's rights convention took place at Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. It was a two day event and after that, 68 women and 32 men signed a Declaration of Settlements. This set the agenda for the women's rights movement. In 1850 the first national women's rights convention was held. It took place in Worchester, Massachusettes. More than 1,000 participants showed up and every year until 1860, except 1857, there was a national convention. In May of 1869 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton formed the National Women Suffrage Association. The goal of this was to gain women's rights to vote. "Women's Rights Movement in the U.S.: Timeline of Events (1848-1920) — Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free online reference, research & homework help. — Infoplease.com. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
The case of McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) was one of several major decisions in which Chief Justice John Marshall defined the extent and relationship of federal and state powers. In 1816, Congress authorized the creation of a national bank, one branch of which was subsequently located in Baltimore. The Maryland legislature, in an attempt to protect its own banks from competition, levied a tax of 2 percent on all notes issued by any bank operating in Maryland not chartered by the state. McCulloch, the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States, was convicted under the statute for refusing to pay the tax. "McCulloch v. Maryland." Web.3 Sep 2009. .
Sectionalism is one's loyalty to their region rather than to their whole nation. In 1817 Missouri applied for statehood. The residents that would be living in Missouri wanted slavery but that meant upsetting the balance of slave states to free states. The problem was solved with the Missouri Compromise when Maine was added as a free state and Missouri as a slave state. Sectionalism was very huge during the Civil War. The South wanted to become their own nation instead of being part of the United States. "Sectionalism -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
A main part of the expansion of the United States was the Manifest Destiny. This document expanded across North America from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Back in the 1800's the settlers thought that it was "destiny" to settle across North America. This also ecouraged the settlement of foreign lands. This was important because America as a country was growing and needed more land. If they had more land, then they could become more powerful. Without the Manifest Destiny, America would not be the same today. "Manifest Destiny -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 24 Aug. 2009 .
Abolitionism was a movement that took place in Western Europe and the Americas. The movement was to end the slave trade. Many northern states abolished slavery after the Revolutionary War. Abolitionism became big in the United States during the 19th century. Abolitionists were people who fought for the right to abolish slavery. Notable names were Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass. Abolitionist would assist runaway slaves to the north where they would be free. "Abolitionism." Travel and History. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
Marbury v. Madison grew out of the conflict between the Federalist presidency of John Adams and the Republican presidency of his successor, Thomas Jefferson. Just before Jefferson's inauguration (Mar. 4, 1801), President Adams named a number of Federalist politicians to newly created positions. One of them, William Marbury, was appointed a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury had not been delivered his formal papers of appointment, however, and President Jefferson instructed his secretary of state, James Madison, not to do so. Marbury sued for an order (writ of mandamus) forcing Madison to deliver the papers. "Marbury v. Madison." Web.3 Sep 2009. .
On March 1, 1801 Thomas Jefferson was sworn into presidency. He became the third president of the United States. In his speech, Jefferson preached that he wanted the Union to stay as it is and not dissolve into territories again. He believed that the United State's government was the strongest on the entire planet. He also talked about the citizen's individual rights. Jefferson said that the Bill of Rights was still in effect to all citizens of the United States. He promised that a person's religious beliefs would not chance their rights in the Union. Jefferson promised equal justice to all people of the United States and equal justice to other nations. The general welfare's rights were the same as in the Constitution. "Jefferson, Thomas (documents)." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2009. Grolier Online. 18 Aug. 2009 http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0500940-0.
Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between the state and central government. The two governments can have control over the same area of land. This creates a federation. Federalism is important because it keeps the states together. Without it, the states could have split into their own separate country. "Federalism -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 23 Aug. 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federalism. "Federalism What is Federalism?" U.S. Government Info - Resources. Web. 23 Aug. 2009. http://usgovinfo.about.com/od/rightsandfreedoms/a/whatisfederalism.htm.
The temperance movement in the United States took place during the 19th and 20th centuries was largely a no urban, Protestant-led drive to promote, by both persuasion and law, abstinence from alcoholic beverages. During the 19th century people began to abuse alcohol. The American Temperance Society, founded in 1826, began gathering pledges of abstinence. In the 1840s the Washington Temperance Societies . conducted revival-style meetings to encourage similar pledges. Reformer Neal Dow persuaded Maine to approve the first statewide prohibition law in 1846. Despite this intense activity and the passage of many liquor laws, the sale and use of alcohol remained widespread. Then during World War I, the temperance movement was unexpectedly aided by the need to conserve grain. In 1917, Congress passed the 18th Amendment in January 1919; however, it proved unenforceable and was repealed by the 21st Amendment, ratified in 1933. "Temperance Movemenet." Web.3 Sep 2009. .
Nationalism is loyalty to one's nation. Some forms of nationalism are national anthems and national flags. When someone does not have strong nationalism it can mean that they are anarchists. Different nationalists from different states can come together to meet the ultimate goal in making this nation great. "Nationalism -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
The Alien and Sedition Acts were passed by Federalists in 1798. These acts were made to help protect the United States from citizens of other nations. There were four acts to the Alien and Sedition Acts. There was the Naturalization Act, the Alien and Friends Act, the Alien Enemies Act, and the Sedition Act. The Naturalization Act extended the period of time for an alien to become a resident of the United States to 14 years. It was disbanded in 1802. The Alien Friends Act made it so that the president could deport any alien that he deemed dangerous to the United States. The Alien Enemies Act made it so that the president to take and deport any alien if the United States went to war with their country. The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish anything that bad mouthed the United States. This expired in 1801 by Thomas Jefferson as it went against the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights. "Alien and Sedition Acts -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
On September 29, 1796 George Washington gave his speech in resigning as president of the United States. Washington began his speech stating that it was in the best of the country if he didn't run for reelection in 1796. Like in his inaugural address, Washington told his fellow Americans that he never really thought he was qualified for the job. Washington even admitted that he thought about retiring before his second election but was convinced to serve a second term. Washington went on to talk about how he approved of the new Constitution. He called it an improvement to the nation's attempt for the Articles of Confederation. "George Washington's Farewell Address -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 08 Sept. 2009.
The states' rights guarantee the 50 states to the 10th amendment. The tenth says that the power of the United States will not be left to one government but will be left to the states and the states people. It was important because it classified things in the constitution and guaranteed that no one person could ever control the country. It is important today because it still guarantees that no one person will rule the country. It also guarantees the people the right to have a say in what goes on in this country. "Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 02 Sept. 2009 .
The Bill of Rights is the first ten admendments to the constitution. It gave the people of the United States freedom. It made a major overall impact on their life. It gives them the right of speaking out on freedom of religion, speech, and the press. These ten rights are set where they will not be able to be modified or changed. "Bill of Rights." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 03 Sept. 2009. .
Passed by the Continental Congress in 1787, the Northwest Ordinance established the Northwest Territory. This document also outlined which states in the Northwest Territory would become states. Along with the Ordinance of 1785, these documents became a model for how territories west of the Mississippi River would be formed. This transition from transforming territories into states went peacefully. This was big help for the government since they rarely had to deal with conflicts. With the territories becoming states, these states could have certain rights for their citizens. When the territory could become a state, the people of that state had different rights. For instance one individual would not be judged on his/her beliefs. Also all citizens that reside in that territory would have bail if they were sentenced to prison. The general warefare also had an impact. For instance once the territory became a state, it would remain a state. An individual could not be deprived of their own property and every resident would have to pay federal taxes. "Northwest Ordinance (document)." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2009. Grolier Online. 17 Aug. 2009 .
The Federalist Papers were 85 essays that were written and published during 1787 and 1788 in New York. These essays talked about how the new government was right for the United States. They also talked about how the new government would operate. Something interesting about these essays was that they were all signed "PUBLIUS" instead of the original author's names. The authors that are noted for writing these essays were: James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. The Federalist Papers, even today, are a good reference for anyone trying to better understand the Constitution. The term "Federalist Papers" didn't come to be until the 20th century. Before then they were orignally called "The Federalist." "Federalist Papers." Founding Fathers. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. This document set up the role and the responsibility for the entire country. It separated individual rights from government power. This document set up laws. "The United States Constitution - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net." Index Page - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net. Web. 02 Sept. 2009. .
Slavery was a huge part in American history for nearly 300 years. Slavery dominated the agricultural part of the United States and was huge in the southern states. Slavery was when white land owners bought and sold African American and forced them into hard labor. The dispute over slavery eventually lead to the American Civil War in 1861. The North won the war and abolished slavery throughout the United States. Even though slavery was abolished, slavery was still a big issue in American history. "Slavery in the United States - MSN Encarta." MSN Encarta : Online Encyclopedia, Dictionary, Atlas, and Homework. Web. 08 Sept. 2009. .