Trimester 1 & 2
Created by swimchic514 on Oct 28, 2010
Last updated: 05/03/11 at 06:58 AM
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Provided for women's suffrage
made it illegal to ship items produce by child labor across state lines. however, declared unconstitutional in 1918
all-purpose protection program for Federal civilian employees and their dependents in the event of injury or death.
for fear of the formation of a farmer's party, the democrats passed this act, which established several loan banks which would give loans to farmers.
built upon other anti-trust laws. prohibited predatory price cutting, price fixing, ownership of competitors' stock and one director for two competing companies.
Allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on Census results. This amendment exempted income taxes from the constitutional requirements regarding direct taxes, after income taxes on rents, dividends, and interest were ruled to be direct taxes in Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895). It was ratified on February 3, 1913.
Established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote
Wilson) Democrats took control of Congress; general duty reduction soon negated by outbreak of World War I; federal income tax provision
In the primaries, Roosevelt felt betrayed by Taft because he removed Pinchot, and decided to break off and form the Progressive party. this split of the republican party led to the Democratic win (Woodrow Wilson).
fire that occurred in a factory in NYC. It exposed the safety hazards that were established in the gilded age, and led to better legislation to protect the laborers
rohibited white slavery and the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes". Its primary stated intent was to address prostitution, immorality, and human trafficking
ICC was empowered to suspend railroads, control telephone and radio, and established a commerce court
National Accociation for the Advancement of Colored People- initially created for the purpose of making whites aware of the need for racial equality started by WEB DuBois
Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health
William Howard Taft (Republican) is elected
The Panic of 1907 was a relatively serious economic downturn in the United States caused by a New York credit crunch that spread across the nation and led to the closings of banks and businesses. The severity of the downturn was such that it prompted the United States Congress to form the Federal Reserve System. It was the fourth Panic in 34 years. The government poured money into the banks to quell the storm. Complete ruin of the national economy was averted when J.P. Morgan stepped in to meet the crisis. Morgan organized a team of bank and trust executives. The team redirected money between banks, secured further international lines of credit, and bought plummeting stocks of healthy corporations. By 1908, confidence in the economy was restored.
strengthened other railroad laws by greatly increasing power of ICC
many areas of the country are protected (Grand Canyon)
prohibited railroads from giving rebates to specific customers. It also stated that the rates had to be published, and set repercussions if this law was broken
United Mine Workers of America strike in eastern Pennsylvania which threatened to cause an energy crisis requiring the federal government to intervene, which they do without violence (first time).
case over the income tax from the Wilson Gorman Tariff- the income tax was declared unconstitutional because it was a direct tax, and against the provision that direct taxes be apportioned
Congress adds this to the Wilson Gorman Tariff in 1894. it is the first of its kind, and declared unconstitutional by the Pollock case
Railroad companies borrowed a bunch of money and tried to expand too much too quickly, and they couldn't pay back the loans. This causes many of the banks to close. Cleveland did little to fix the panic
it was an attempt to eliminate monopolies and regulate business. however, it was very loosely worded, and ended up leading to more problems for business regulation
Act (1890) in which the US government would increase their purchase of silver to 1.5 million ounces- however, the silver would be paid for in notes that were redeemable in gold or silver. people began to trade in silver for gold, which was more valuable, and the act had to be repealed because of the depleted gold reserves. the conservatives were upset because the wanted the gold standard, and the "free silver" group wanted a working reform bill
During the Harrison administration, congress decided that they should spend the surplus of money that had been gained through the taxes. They spent the money mostly on special interest groups
This nativist organization wanted the government to pass laws restricting or ending immigration (similar to Know-Nothing Party)
Led to a giant fall in corruption, this prevented the local bosses and city machines to know who was voting for which candidate, so threats and bribes couldn't work
Only big contribution made by Chester Arthur- it puts and end to the spoils system (established by Andrew Jackson) and replaces it with a merit-based system
Formed around the 1880s, and argued for: more paper money, free silver, federal income tax, reduce tariff, direct election of senators. In 1890, the Farmers' alliance ran people for political positions, and had some success.
another labor union: allowed everyone but upper class workers to join (including African Americans), promoted social and cultrual progresses for laborer (8 hour work day, equal pay for equal work, termination of child labor) eventually, the union used strikes for many of their protests. the public didn't trust this union
Allowed Congress to buy 2-4 million dollars worth of silver. the "free silver" group argued that the act did not go far enough, while conservatives wanted to stay on the gold standard
Compromise which said that Hayes will win presidency, but he must remove all military presence in the south and stop reconstruction. This allowed the Republicans to have a president, but it took away much of their power
All males, regardless of race, color, or previous servitude, had the right to vote. However, this act did not include any enforcement, and thus many states just ignored it.
There was a tax on whiskey, and a few people in the Grant administration skimmed money off the top, and even accepted bribes from distilleries. This was exposed in 1875, and made Grant look super bad (he didn’t really have anything to do with it, but people lost trust)
Brought on by: Speculation, Overproduction, Low worker's wages, Employers are pocketing money, Big banking houses collapse. as a result of over-growth, many of the big railroad companies failed, and discoveries of silver lowered its value. The panic created tensions between the worker and employer, and the silver v gold issue
began by Oliver Kelley as a social function for farmers. They became a political movement in the 1870s, and argued for various rights for farmers. however, they faded back into a simple social organization after 1875
In favor of reconstruction, but was not super enthusiastic. His adminsitration was known for corruption: Whiskey ring, Credit mobilier- he becomes the poster child for Republican Corruption.
Protected rights of citizens, and stated that anyone born in the US was a citizen (execpt Native Americans) and reinforced the due process and equal protection clause of constitution. Also disallowed former confederate officers from holding office, and would decrease the representation of any state that denied suffrage
Designed to destroy the black codes, and gave blacks full citizenship- it was vetoed by Johnson, but overturned by Congress. This proved that congress had power over the Executive branch, and then they started to create long term, lasting changes (as opposed to the short term changes created by Johnson)
Reconstruction under President Johnson starting in 1865. Includes the pardons, decline of the Freedmen's Bureau, and trying to go back to the way the country was before (without slavery)
beginning in 1865, reconstruction occurred to help the nation emerge from the civil war. there was presidential (Johnson- short term problems and solutions) and Congressional (long term solutions) reconstruction
John Wilkes Booth heard that Lincoln planned on allowing some black citizens to vote- he was stunned and decided that Lincoln (and later the rest of the leading figures) should be killed, and the Confederacy could re-emerge. However, Lincoln's murder only unified the nation- and caused him to become a martyr and hero for american values
Order by Sherman that confiscated 400,000 acres of land along the Atlantic coast to give to the freed slaves and their families- they did not have any effect, because the order was revoked by President Johnson
in 1864, Sherman's soldiers burned Atlanta, and walked to Savannah- destroying confederate property along the way. Sherman then continued to North Carolina, and his troops destroyed Charleston, South Carolina as well
Passed in both houses- pocket vetoed by Lincoln- this bill proposed that the south should take responsibility for the war, and pay for their rebellion: more citizens pledging alledgence, abolishment of slavery, south had to pay for north's expenses, denounce secession, and confederates could never vote or hold office again
violent disturbances in New York City that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots were the largest civil insurrection in American history apart from the Civil War itself. President Abraham Lincoln sent several regiments of militia and volunteer troops to control the city. The rioters were overwhelmingly working class men, resentful, among other reasons, because the draft unfairly affected them.
When Delaware does not take Lincoln's buy-out plan, he issues this Proclamation, which frees all slaves in the rebelling states (not border states), however, the states are in rebellion and will thus not follow orders. However, there was nothing against the law about the Proclamation, and it showed the country that Lincoln would fight to end slavery, but would not go against the principals of the country to do it.
Allows for creation of land-grant colleges, colleges built on federally granted land specially appropriated for this purpose. It was signed into law by Lincoln
The head of a household could petition to buy very cheap land. They were given 5 years to improve the land "build a fence, dig a well", and then they could keep the land. Confederates were not allowed to have this land