When the Nationalists surrounded the Communist Party, they realized they faced defeat. So Mao and his 100,000 men began a dangerous, 6,000 mile trek running from Jiang's Nationalist forces. Thousands died from hunger, cold, exposure, and battle wounds - the journey lasted 2 years.
Kemal successfully freed Turkey from Greek and British powers, and in '23 became president of the newly formed republic. He immediately began making reforms, some of which were the following: 1. He separated country and religion, 2. he abolished religious courts and replaced them with new, European-based legal systems, 3. he granted women more fair and equal rights, such as the right to vote and hold public office, and 4. he launched government-fundede projects to help industrialize and promote economic growth in Turkey.
When the British government refused to punish the officers held at fault for the Amritsar massacre, the Indian National Congress was instructed by Gandhi to deliberately and publicly refuse to obey laws as means of weakening the British government's authority and economic power in India.
The Central Powers had been weakened severely by their effort to reach the Marne. Men and resources had been exhausted, so when the Allies attack them with the aid of hundreds of thousands of US soilders, they were able do defeat them. On November of '18, Kaiser Wilhelm II stepped down from power and a armistice was signed to stop fighting for good.
The final straw that pushed United States into the war was a telegram intercepted between Germany and Mexico. It promised Mexico the reconquering of all land it had lost to the US if they were to allie themselves with Germany. The Americans were already inclined to join the side of the British, and this event confirmed their affiliation with the Allies.
The two rival camps - the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance - were fully formed and unified by 1914. So when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, all countries held true to their pledges of alliance and rushed to support one another, resulting in an all out world war.
The Revolutionary Alliance, the forerunning group to the Kuomintang, pushing for modernization and nationalism in China, successfully overthrew the final emperor of the Qing dynasty. The dynasty had been in power since 1644, but never again would rise to rule the country.