Created by takriti on 15/07/2008
Last updated: 12/11/09 at 10:06
Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina (Avicenna) was a Muslim polymath and the foremost physician and Islamic philosopher of his time.
He was also an astronomer, chemist, geologist, Hafiz, logician, mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist, Sheikh, soldier, statesman and Islamic theologian.
Ibn Sina is regarded as a father of early modern medicine, and clinical pharmacology particularly for his introduction of systematic experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology, his discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, efficacy tests, clinical pharmacology, neuropsychiatry, risk factor analysis, and the of a syndrome, and the importance of dietetics and the influence of climate and environment on health. He is also considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics, and regarded as a pioneer of aromatherapy. He also developed the concept of uniformitarianism and law of superposition in geology.
Brass astrolabes were developed in the medieval Islamic world, chiefly as an aid to navigation and as a way of finding the qibla, the direction of Mecca. The first person credited with building the astrolabe in the Islamic world is reportedly the 8th century Muslim mathematician al-Fazari. The mathematical background was established by the Muslim astronomer al-Battani in his treatise Kitab az-Zij (ca. 920 AD), which was translated into Latin by Plato Tiburtinus (De Motu Stellarum). The earliest surviving astrolabe is dated AH 315 (927/8 AD). In the Islamic world, astrolabes were used to find the times of sunrise and the rising of fixed stars, to help schedule morning prayers (salat). In the 10th century, al-Sufi first described over 1,000 different uses of an astrolabe, in areas as diverse as astronomy, astrology, horoscopes, navigation, surveying, timekeeping, prayer, Salah, Qibla, etc.
Abu Nasr al-Farabi was a Muslim polymath and one of the greatest scientists and philosophers of the Islamic world in his time. He was also a cosmologist, logician, musician, psychologist and sociologist.
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi was a Muslim alchemist, chemist, physician, philosopher and scholar.
Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various fields of science.
He was an early proponent of experimental medicine and is considered the father of pediatrics. He was also a pioneer of neurosurgery and ophthalmology.
Abu Yusuf Yaʻqub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi was an Arab polymath: a philosopher, scientist, astrologer, astronomer, cosmologist, chemist, logician, mathematician, musician, physician, physicist, psychologist, and meteorologist.
He is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world, and as a pioneer in chemistry, cryptography, medicine, music theory, physics, psychology, and the philosophy of science.
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was an Islamic mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and geographer.
His Algebra was the first book on the systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. Consequently he is considered to be the father of algebra.
Khalil ibn Ahmad Al-Farahidi was an Arab philologist.
His best known contributions are Kitab al-'Ayn, considered the first dictionary of the Arabic language, the current standard for Harakat (vowel marks in Arabic script), and the invention al-'arud (the study of Arabic prosody).
He moved to Basra,Iraq. He died in Basra some time between 777 and 791. Sibawayh and Al-Asma'i were among his students.