Recent Event Highlights: Chinese Dynasties Song, MiraCosta Celebrating the Chinese New Year, REDLANDS: Featured artist paints in Chinese style, AP World Chinese Dynasties Rap, APWH Chinese Dynasties, Chinese Dynasty MV - "This is How We Sing", and 201 more...
Created by dipity on Oct 19, 2008
Last updated: 08/18/11 at 08:59 AM
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...Limited to 30 guests. • Chinese Fashion Show: Traditional Chinese costume fashion show from Tang and Qing Dynasties with Chinese food, 12:15 to 1:15 p.m. Feb. 3 on the lawn at the center of the Oceanside campus. The show will also be presented 12:15 to 1:15...
San Diego Union-Tribune
...Limited to 30 guests. â¢ Chinese Fashion Show: Traditional Chinese costume fashion show from Tang and Qing Dynasties with Chinese food, 12:15 to 1:15 p.m. Feb. 3 on the lawn at the center of the Oceanside campus. The show will also be presented 12:15 to 1:15...
San Diego Union-Tribune
...a fine brush and great attention to detail. Ru's extensive series of court women, researched to represent historical Chinese dynasties, are elaborately drawn, painted and polished. "She researched the dress and hair styles of each dynasty to create these,"...
Southern CA Press-Enterprise
For extra credit in APWH. "This is How We Sing" by Mao-on-a-Stick (sung to the tune of "In the End" by Linkin Park) (Please don't don't sue us. The music is the property of Linkin Park and whoever else legally owns this song.) Lyrics: It starts with the Xia I don't know why It doesn't even matter but their legend never died Keep that in mind I designed this rhyme To explain in due time All I know About the Chinese dynasties Which is followed by the dynasty Shang Divination, pictograms, and bronze The Zhou came after that The Mandate of Heaven To prevent corruption Ended with the Warring States Period Kongzi, Laozi, and legalism The China followed the latter system The name China came from Qin, then the Han came in; it all fell apart What came epically, was the Han dynasty, now a memory of a time when They grew some rice And traded spice And paper Gunpowder and printing Then someone came And rose to fame Mao Zedong Communism China split into Wei, Shu, Wu The Sui reunified and refortified Keep that in mind I designed this rhyme to explain china And then the Tang. In spite of the way they were suppressing them Buddhism rose up to a main religion Next we are going to sing about the Sung Get it! That's an alliteration Wide spread cultivation of tea and cotton China was taken over by Kublai Khan And the people then revolted And it all comes back to Ming (in the end) Trade with the Europe wing And literature things This is how we sing I cannot guarantee that you'll make an A (or ...
...single building or buildings focused much more on the continuity of space cognition. The shape of inner space in Qin and Han Dynasties had basically possessed the space characteristics of Chinese classical architecture. 3. The indoor interface construction...
The Chinese badminton arena has undergone a change of era after the retirement of Zhang Ning, Xie Xingfang and Gao Ling. The nation of badminton has produced new talents to take over the reign from the veterans. Chow How Ban reports from China.
EU ALYSSONCMA JOGANDO COM A CIVILIZAÇÃO CHINA VS ALEMANHA UMA SUPER BATALHA SOU DO CLÃ (((LEGION OF WAR))) LEWAR HELLO MY NAME IS ALYSSONCMA I AM THE CLAN (((LEGION OF WAR))) LEGION Ensemble Studios: Age of Empires III
The Jing and Tang Dynasties were the golden eras of Chinese calligraphy. Many calligraphers and styles became popular during these periods. Pictures of Tang Dynasty Clerical Style ( 唐隸): baike.baidu.com www.art-virtue.com igt.com.tw 盛唐八分書研究www.wenchin.com.tw 《受禪表碑》三國魏黃初（202年）刻。在河南許昌縣，額篆書題受禪表。字方正，漸開唐隸之門。 Free download of a related Chinese calligraphy model: www.bs2005.com Sample characters in this video: 尚still; yet 篆seal scripts 式type; style ================== 門師成元書亨禪柏無尚篆式"唐隸不可學"之說bbs.eshufa.com Ref#17453
The Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) www.art-virtue.com is regarded by the Chinese as their most glorious periods in culture and Chinese calligraphy. The perfection of regular scripts (Kai Shu 楷書, Standard Style) superseded clerical scripts (Li Shu 隸書) used in the Han Dynasty as the official scripts. Unlike some of the Kai Shu of previous dynasties, great attention was given to produce firm strokes and balanced characters in many styles of Tang Kai ( 唐楷) and they became popular models for learning Chinese calligraphy since then. Sample characters adapted from 令狐熙碑and 令狐德棻碑: (Both are rare models.) 莽crude and rash 當should; must 兼have (are) both ... and ... Portrait of 令狐德棻: www.tcyzzx.gov.cn About 令狐德棻and his father 令狐熙: 令狐德棻（583～666）唐初政治家，史學家。宜州華原（今陝西耀縣）人。多次參加官書的編寫，最大貢獻為編修《周書》。 令狐德棻was a famous politician and historian in the early Tang Dynasty. www.hudong.com Ref#17453
The Jing and Tang Dynasties were the golden eras of Chinese calligraphy. Many calligraphers and styles became popular during these periods. Pictures of Tang Dynasty Clerical Style ( 唐隸): baike.baidu.com www.art-virtue.com igt.com.tw 盛唐八分書研究www.wenchin.com.tw 《受禪表碑》三國魏黃初（202年）刻。在河南許昌縣，額篆書題受禪表。字方正，漸開唐隸之門。 Free download of a related Chinese calligraphy model: www.bs2005.com Sample characters in this video: 禪Zen 柏cypress 無nothing ================== 門師成元書亨禪柏無尚篆式"唐隸不可學"之說bbs.eshufa.com
Heres some Jade Dynasty gameplay of my lvl 35 modo jade dynasty is extremely fun and questions comment etc Music used: -Song Title- Tear Away -Artist- Drowning Pool ---WATCH IN HQ---- if you like to read the txt in video. Comment,Rate,Subscribe, Any questions feel free to ask or visit my channel here www.youtube.com I left a lot of things out purely because i didn't go fully in def. If you want me to make more on other factions let me know personally i love modos and are great spellcasters and melee dps. ----TAGS---- GAMEPLAY modo jade dynasty hq GAMEPLAY gameplaygameplay modo faction guide guild clan jade dynasty hacks cheat scrolls ac tools bugs fun guild madness modo first look action gameplay Jade Dynasty Zhu Xian Ghost Chinese Game Best Jade Dynasty Zhu Xian Ghost Chinese Game Best MODO gameplay jade dynasty modo
Mr.Michael Tu Pham has a word to say on the chinese . . . . . . . . . . . This video does not contain: FHM Maxim Paris Hilton(thank god) Jennifer Aniston legs cleavage WWE WWF WCW ECW TNA Stacey Keibler Trish Stratus Divas Torrie Wilson Tara Reid (again, thank god) hj bj fj sluts whores...
This is the official gameplay trailer for Age of Empires III The Asian Dynasties gameplay trailer. Please watch in high definition. Ensemble Studios Producer Brian Lemon, introduces us to the new civilizations of Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties. Download this trailer here: www.agecommunity.com
...are silhouetted against the light casting on Terracottas of China's Qin Dynasty (221 BC-206 BC) during an exhibition of the Chinese Terracotta of the Qin and Han Dynasties in Maaseik, eastern Belgium, on Feb. 6, 2009. More than 220 relics of the Qin and Han...
Beauty Song from movie House of Flying Daggers pictures of chinese women from various dynasties
Me and my friends made this video for WHAP using garry's mod. yes, that is me singing alone. Hope you enjoy it.
Japanese Kimono and Korean Hanbok were all developed from Chinese Hanfu in Han Dynasty and Tang Dynasty.Because that time China was the superpower in Asia.
MINNEAPOLIS, Nov. 11 (UPI) -- U.S. and Chinese scientists say they've discovered a linkage between the cyclical weakening of Asian monsoons and the fall of Chinese dynasties.
United Press International
A stalagmite rising from the floor of a cave in China is providing clues to the end of several dynasties in Chinese history.
AP World History movie project we did for extra cred
Unlike their Hollywood friendly brethren, the Tibetans, the Uighurs of northwestern China, claim to be an oppressed minority group that no one has ever heard of. That is, unless the Chinese government publicizes an attack by Uighur insurgents, such as the one that killed 16 Chinese police officers on the eve of the Beijing Olympics.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/travel_places/China_s_Wild_West_the_fate_of_Uighurs_Muslim_minority
Currently we have an economy that is being held together with bailing wire and glue until after the November election. Even CNBC’s Cramer, a capitalist if there ever was one, now says that the American stock market is so rigged that the average person needs to get out NOW.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/business_finance/America_The_Newest_Third_World_Nation_2
This year, I took my mind off record-breaking swim relays and super-twisty gymnastics routines for a minute to consider the Olympic host's techno-socio-political future. The opening ceremony confirmed my theory that China is breeding robots. But what else is up in the giant nation that many believe will be the next world superpower?Full Digg post: http://digg.com/arts_culture/What_China_s_Dystopian_Future_May_Look_Like
Most U.S. and foreign corporations doing business in the United States avoid paying any federal income taxes, despite trillions of dollars worth of sales, a government study released on Tuesday said.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/business_finance/Study_Shows_Most_Corporations_Pay_No_U_S_Income_Taxes
If Oppressing people and building wall's around their Shops and homes to hide them from Tourists and the world was an Olympic event than the Chinese government would surely win a Gold Medal, Some of Beijing's rundown storefronts and neighborhoods are hidden behind newly built walls as China puts on its best face for the gamesFull Digg post: http://digg.com/world_news/Olympics_Wall_hides_entire_Beijing_neighborhood_from_World
Tourists leaving the west gate of the Temple of Heaven next month will probably not notice Song Wei’s home across the street. Nor will they likely stop by Sun Ruonan’s restaurant nearby. Thats because china constructed a 10-foot-tall brick wall last week, part of a last-minute beautification campaign.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/world_news/China_builds_10_Wall_around_House_Shop_so_Tourists_wont_see
FOX must stop injecting racism, prejudice, and fear into our political dialogue. We intend to hold FOX, its advertisers, and its personalities accountable for FOX's attempts to smear the Obamas.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/2008_us_elections/Sorry_FOX_we_won_t_let_you_trash_Michelle_Obama_2
Corporate America has always used war to steal as much as they could. "Unless Congress closes a gaping hole in the law against war profiteering, companies ripping off taxpayers in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars may never be fully prosecuted. This is because the latest conflicts are not declared wars." Read on.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/political_opinion/Corporate_America_has_always_used_war_to_steal
this is my favorite chinese ancient tv drama~~~~
Since 1990, every 4 years the US Govt. has been required to issue a “scientific” report on climate change and its effects on the economy, environment, and public health. W ignored the '04 deadline for this report and the government was sued by green groups. Finally, the long awaited report is here, and *drumroll please*...Full Digg post: http://digg.com/environment/White_House_Newsflash_Glbl_Warming_VERY_LIKELY_Human_Caused
Persistent rumors and tall tales by some Chinese bloggers are proving nettlesome to the authorities as they grapple with China’s most calamitous disaster in a generation.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/world_news/Chinese_authorities_arrest_bloggers_over_earthquake_rumors
The Clintons are used to loving and supporting minorities – as long as the minorities know their place and see the Clintons as the instrument of their salvation. Obama rejects that dependency. And thus the Clintons strive to destroy him. But in that venture they are destroying themselves and their legacy.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/2008_us_elections/Hillary_Clinton_s_suicidal_gamble_with_race_poison
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the mid-Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost five centuries, it served as the home of the Emperor and his household, and the ceremonial and political centre of Chinese government. Built from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 surviving buildings with 8707 bays of rooms and covers 720000 square metres. The palace complex exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world. Since 1924, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artefacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum's former collection is now located in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War.
Clinton is airing an advertisement in Indiana, bemoaning the closure of a defense contractor Magnequench's manufacturing plant in Valparaiso (she is also echoing this line in her stump speeches) but forgets to mention that it wasn't George Bush who was in the key position to stop it - it was Bill Clinton.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/2008_us_elections/David_Sirota_Clinton_Criticizing_Closure_of_Indiana_Factory
From Wikipedia, The Tang Dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝; pinyin: Táng Cháo; Middle Chinese: dhɑng) (18 June 618--4 June 907) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. It was founded by the Li (李) family, The Tang Dynasty, with its capital at Chang'an (present-day Xi'an), the most populous city in the world at the time, is regarded by historians as a high point in Chinese civilization — equal to or surpassing that of the earlier Han Dynasty — as well as a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang Dao is one of greatest invention in Tang dynasty. here is two links that offer more information about Tang Dao. http://thomaschen.freewebspace.com/custom.html http://www.shadowofleaves.com/Chinese_Sword_History.htm
For better or worse — and many Democrats fear it is for worse — the race goes on.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/2008_us_elections/The_Real_Loser_in_Pennsylvania_The_Democratic_Party
On Monday, with the Pennsylvania primary just days away, Hillary Clinton continued to hammer Barack Obama over his comments that small town Americans "cling to guns or religion" because they are "bitter." The crowd didn't like the attack.Full Digg post: http://digg.com/2008_us_elections/Pennsylvania_Crowd_Doesn_t_Buy_Barack_Bashing
南北朝时期是两晋以后中国历史上一个分裂时期，从公元420年开始，到589年北隋灭南陈结束，共169年。 公元420年，东晋大将刘裕废掉东晋皇帝自立，国号宋。此后160 多年间，南方先后经历了宋、齐、梁、陈四个朝代，历史上总称为南朝。 公元386年拓跋部首领拓跋圭建立北魏；公元439年，统一黄河流域。6世纪前期，北魏分裂为东魏和西魏。此后，东魏为北齐所代替。西魏为北周所代替。历史上把这北方的五个朝代总称为北朝。 在南方，虽然先后有刘宋、南齐、萧梁和陈四个政权的更迭，但这中间除梁元帝以江陵作都3年外，其余的时间，南方各朝的京城始终建在建康(今江苏南京)。刘宋(420－479年)是其中疆域最大、最强、统治年代最长的一个政权，历4代8帝，共59年。南齐(479－502年)国祚短暂，只有23年，但由于争杀频繁，竟历3代7帝，平均3年一帝，是中国历史上帝王更换极快的一朝。梁代(502－557年)历3代4帝，其中武帝萧衍个人享国时间最久，几近半个世纪。陈(557－589年)首尾凡33年，历3代5帝。陈承衰梁之弊，是版图狭窄、人口孤弱、力量单薄的王朝，加之统治者又极度腐败，最终丧亡于隋朝之手。 宋；公元420年刘裕废掉了晋帝自立，国号宋。为区别于后世赵匡胤建立的宋朝，史学家长称之为"刘宋"。由于刘裕出身贫寒，又看到了东晋因大族屡屡兴兵反抗而使其灭亡的教训，故而在他登基后，不再重用名门大族。其用人也多为贫寒出身，兵权则主要交于自己的皇子，所以没重蹈东晋发生大族割据的覆辙。然而，由于皇子相互间的争权夺利，最后以至与相互残杀，这是刘裕始料未及的。 前四二二年，刘裕卒，宋少帝、文帝相继即位。从425年起，文帝刘义隆在位的三十年间，是宋朝最繁荣的一段时期，这时南方的经济、文化才真正有所发展。但是文帝刘义隆好大喜功，贸然北伐，两次北伐未果,反而让北魏太武帝拓跋焘抓住机会，以重骑兵集团南下.兵抵长江北岸而返，至此南方的战略优势丧失。此间，宋与北朝的魏国交战虽各有胜负，都损失惨重，但是南朝比起北朝来说，损失更大，败仗更多，南军无力争夺中原，从此转入了战略防御阶段。而北朝很快又陷入国内的重重矛盾之中，不久北魏太武帝被宦官暗杀。至此，南北双方无力再发生大战。从此，南北方相对稳定下来。公元453年，刘宋文帝被儿子所杀。文帝死后，宋孝武帝、宋明帝先后为帝，但他们俩都是有名的暴君，其不仅对诸将疑忌，而且兄弟间相互残杀，政治一度混乱。在此期间，南兖州刺史萧道成趁政治混乱之机而形成了较强的势力。四七九年，萧道成灭宋，建立齐。至此，宋朝宣告灭亡。 齐；齐是四个朝代中存在时间最短的，仅有23年。齐高帝萧道成借鉴了宋灭亡的教训，以宽厚为本，提倡节俭。他共在位四年，在他临死前，要求其子武帝继续统治其方针，并且不要手足相残。武帝遵其遗嘱，继续统治国家，使南朝又出现了一段相对稳定发展的阶段。武帝死后，齐国的皇帝又走上了宋灭亡的老路，他们纷纷杀戮自己的兄亲、叔侄，至东昏侯时，因其疑心过重，几乎将朝内大臣全部处死。这样一来齐国的江山又被动摇了。公元五零一年，雍州刺史萧衍起兵攻入建康，结束了齐的统治。 梁；梁朝的建立者萧衍擅长文学，499年被任命为雍州刺史，他乘齐国内乱，发兵夺取了皇位，建立了梁朝。萧衍是为梁武帝，共在位四十八年。在武帝时期，北方的魏国已经衰落，再无能力对南方形成威胁。这本应为南方发展的大好时机，但武帝却昏庸无能，纵容大臣剥削人民，却又以自己节俭为借口，对一些忠臣的建议置之不理。公元五四八年，投降梁的东魏大将侯景倒戈。他以武帝从子萧正德为内应，进攻梁国。次年，侯景攻陷台城。此时，梁武帝早已饿死于城中，其子萧纲即位，是为梁简文帝。公元五五一年，侯景杀死简文帝，因此梁已完全处于崩溃的边缘。公元五五七年，在讨伐侯景的战争中发展起来的陈霸先灭梁，建立陈。至此，梁宣告灭亡。 陈；公元557年，陈霸先废梁敬帝，自立为帝，建立陈，是为陈武帝。此时，中国南方经过了多年的战乱，经济遭到了严重的破坏。在此基础上建立起来的国家，便注定是短命的。陈武帝与其继承者文帝、宣帝先后消灭了王僧辩、王僧智等反对势力，又在建康附近打败北齐军。在一定程度上巩固了梁的统治，但毕竟由于国力衰微，陈的统治被局限于长江以南，宜昌以东的地方。公元五八三年，陈宣帝卒。其子后主陈叔宝即位，此时北方已被隋朝统一，全国的统一也已指日可待。公元五八九年，隋文帝杨坚灭陈，结束了中国长达近三百年的分裂局面。 南朝的历史是门阀士族由盛而衰的历史，南朝的皇权比较强大，门阀士族社会地位虽然高贵，却已不能完全左右政局。随着江南开发的不断深入，土著寒人在政治上逐渐上升，步入官僚行列，为皇帝所倚重。从梁陈之际开始，南方内地的土豪，也成为割据的一方势力。 南朝是继东晋之后，由汉族在南方建立起来的朝廷，虽然他们的存在都不过几十年，但其作为汉族的统治，使汉文化得以保存和发展。所以，南朝在中国历史上有着重要的地位，为华夏文明的发展作出了的贡献。
清朝国祚（1644-1911）是由满族人，在远东建立的国家，它被普遍认为是中国的最后一个封建王朝。 清朝初期，它积极改革明朝宦官乱政等弊政，鼓励生产，经济得到一定恢复，这一时期也被称为"康乾盛世"。清朝统治者对内：采取了民族分治的民族政策；对外：实行海禁，闭关锁国，拒绝外国先进思想和技术。这些政策维护了清朝的疆域扩张和社会稳定，但却导致了其统治时期内的民族问题，和末期的国家极度贫弱。 清朝后期，它成为了，英，法等殖民国家侵略扩张的新对象。以英国为首的西方国家，先后发动了两次鸦片战争。清政府被迫与之签定了一系列的不平等条约。为维护其统治，晚清政府开展了"师夷长技以制夷"的"洋务运动"，奠定了近代中国民族工业的基础。1898年，光绪帝开始了"戊戌变法"，但受到了保守势力的阻扰，变法失败。1911年（宣统三年）辛亥革命爆发后，各省纷纷宣布独立。1912年，溥仪退位，清朝结束。清朝共十帝，历268年。 The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ch'ing ch'ao; Manchu: Daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин Улс), also known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the last ruling dynasty of China from 1644 to 1912. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in what is today northeast China (Manchuria). Starting in 1644 it expanded into China proper and its surrounding territories, establishing the Empire of the Great Qing (simplified Chinese: 大清国; traditional Chinese: 大清國; pinyin: dàqīngguó). The Qing Dynasty was the last Imperial dynasty of China. Declared as the Later Jin Dynasty in 1616, it changed its name to "Qing", meaning "clear" or "pellucid", , in 1636 and captured Beijing in 1644. By 1646 it had come into power over most of present-day China, although complete pacification of China would not be accomplished until 1683. During its reign, the Qing Dynasty was highly integrated with Chinese culture. However, its military power weakened during the 1800s, and faced with international pressure, massive rebellions and defeats in wars, the Qing Dynasty declined after the mid-19th century. The Qing Dynasty was overthrown following the Xinhai Revolution, when the Empress Dowager Longyu abdicated on behalf of the last emperor, Puyi, on February 12, 1912.
Science and technology Compared to the flourishing of science and technology in the Song Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty perhaps saw fewer advancements in science and technology compared to the pace of discovery in the Western world. In fact, key advances in Chinese science in the late Ming were spurred by contact with Europe. In 1626 Johann Adam Schall von Bell wrote the first Chinese treatise on the telescope, the Yuanjingshuo (Far Seeing Optic Glass); in 1634 the last Ming emperor Chongzhen acquired the telescope of the late Johann Schreck (1576--1630). The heliocentric model of the solar system was rejected by the Catholic missionaries in China, but Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei's slowly trickled into China starting with the Polish Jesuit Michael Boym (1612--1659) in 1627, Adam Schall von Bell's treatise in 1640, and finally Joseph Edkins, Alex Wylie, and John Fryer in the 19th century. Although Shen Kuo (1031--1095) and Guo Shoujing (1231--1316) had laid the basis for trigonometry in China, another important work in Chinese trigonometry would not be published again until 1607 with the efforts of Xu Guangqi and Matteo Ricci. The Chinese were intrigued with European technology, but so were visiting Europeans of Chinese technology. In 1584, Abraham Ortelius (1527--1598) featured in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum the peculiar Chinese innovation of mounting masts and sails onto carriages, just like Chinese ships.Gonzales de Mendoza also mentioned this a year later—noting even the designs of them on Chinese silken robes—while Gerardus Mercator (1512--1594) featured them in his atlas, John Milton (1608--1674) in one of his famous poems, and Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest (1739--1801) in the writings of his travel diary in China. 17th century; Song Yingxing devoted an entire section of his book to the ceramics industry in the making of porcelain items like this.The encyclopedist Song Yingxing (1587--1666) documented a wide array of technologies, metallurgic and industrial processes in his Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia of 1637. This includes mechanical and hydraulic powered devices for agriculture and irrigation,nautical technology such as vessel types and snorkeling gear for pearl divers, the annual processes of sericulture and weaving with the loom,metallurgic processes such as the crucible technique and quenching, manufacturing processes such as for roasting iron pyrite in converting sulphide to oxide in sulfur used in gunpowder compositions—illustrating how ore was piled up with coal briquettes in an earthen furnace with a still-head that sent over sulfur as vapor that would solidify and crystallize—and the use of gunpowder weapons such as a naval mine ignited by use of a rip-cord and steel flint wheel. Focusing on agriculture in his Nongzheng Quanshu, the agronomist Xu Guangqi (1562--1533) took an interest in irrigation, fertilizers, famine relief, economic and textile crops, and empirical observation of the elements that gave insight into early understandings of chemistry. There were many advances and new designs in gunpowder weapons during the beginning of the dynasty, but by the mid to late Ming the Chinese began to frequently employ European-style artillery and firearms.The Huolongjing, compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Ji sometime before the latter's death on May 16, 1375 (with a preface added by Jiao in 1412), featured many types of cutting-edge gunpowder weaponry for the time. This includes hollow, gunpowder-filled exploding cannonballs,land mines that used a complex trigger mechanism of falling weights, pins, and a steel wheellock to ignite the train of fuses, naval mines,fin-mounted winged rockets for aerodynamic control,multistage rockets propelled by booster rockets before igniting a swarm of smaller rockets issuing forth from the end of the missile (shaped like a dragon's head), and hand cannons that had up to ten barrels. Li Shizhen (1518--1593)—one of the most renowned pharmacologists and physicians in Chinese history—belonged to the late Ming period. In 1587, he completed the first draft of his Bencao Gangmu, which detailed the usage of over 1,800 medicinal drugs.
医学 1406年，朱棣等主持收集编成《普济方》(载方六万一千七百三十九个，是我国现存最大的一部医方书。) 1567年在宁国府太平县试行中国人痘接种方法预防天花。(种痘预防天花是人工免疫法的开端，是医学史上的重大成就。十七世纪我国种痘技术已相当完善，并已推广到全国。我国种痘法于十七世纪初传入欧洲。 ) 1596年李时珍著《本草纲目》在南京正式出版刊行 同期问世的还有《濒湖脉学》《奇经八脉考》等 1601年，杨继洲著《针灸大成》 1617年，陈实功著《外科正宗》(收集了大量有效方剂。他注重实践，勇于革新，创造性地进行了截趾（指）、气管缝合等外科手术，对我国外科学作出了贡献。书中对一些肿瘤也作了论述。) 1624年张景岳撰《类经>刊行,同年，景岳再编《类经图翼》和《类经附翼》 1640《景岳全书》64卷成书 1641年吴有性撰<瘟疫论> 王夫之在《思问录·外篇》中提出了关于生物体的新陈代谢的观念，他说："质日代而形如一，......肌肉之日生而旧者消也，人所未知也。人见形之不变而不知其质之已迁，......" 农学 1376俞宗本著《种树书》(记载了多种树木的嫁接方法，如桃、李、杏的近缘嫁接和桑、梨的远缘嫁接等) 1406年，朱橚《救荒本草》问世(收集四百一十四种可供食用的野生植物资料，载明产地、形态、性味及其可食部分和食法，并绘有精细图谱) 1511年中国种植玉米 （有疑点，可能不正确） 1547年马一龙著《农说》(记载了水稻的精耕细耘、密植、育苗、移栽等的种植经验，是我国第一部运用哲学观点来阐述农业技术的著作。 ) 1582年 藩薯传入中国 1596年 屠本畯（jun）著中国现存最早的海洋生物专著《闽中海错疏》(记载了沿海一带以海生无脊椎动物和鱼类为主的二百多种水族生物的形态和生活习性等。) 1608年，喻仁（喻本元）、喻杰（喻本亨）合著《元亨疗马集》(著名的兽医学著作，内容包括对马、牛和骆驼的治疗经验，至今仍有实用价值。) 1617年赵蛹著<植品>(有关西红柿的种植技术等) 1628年徐光启撰<农政全书> 1425年<郑和航海图>编成 1536年黄衷著<海语>(记录东南亚史地与中国南洋交通情况) 1565年胡宗宪编<筹海图编>记录中日交通及抗倭事 1589年出现最早的世界地图《坤舆万国全图》 1639年顾炎武开始编著《肇域志》《天下郡国利病书》 1640年徐宏祖著《徐霞客游记》正式成书 地理学 1405--1431年郑和率大型远洋船队到达西洋三十余国 化学、冶炼及化工 1521年四川嘉州(今乐山)凿成深达数百米的石油竖井 1596年<唐县志>记载以火爆法的采矿技术 1596年，李时珍在《本草纲目》中记载了二百七十六种无机药物的化学性质以及蒸馏、蒸发、升华、重结晶、沉淀、烧灼等技术 1637年，宋应星在《天工开物》中记述冶炼技术时，把铅、铜、汞、硫等许多化学元素看作是基本的物质，而把与它们有关的反应所产生的物质看作是派生的物质，从而产生化学元素概念的萌芽。 The treasure fleet A giraffe brought from Africa in the twelfth year of Yongle (1414); the Chinese associated the giraffe with the mythical qilin.Beginning in 1405, the Yongle Emperor entrusted his favored eunuch commander Zheng He (1371--1433) as the naval admiral for a gigantic new fleet of ships designated for international tributary missions. The Chinese had sent diplomatic missions over land and west since the Han Dynasty (202 BCE--220 CE) and had been engaged in private overseas trade leading all the way to East Africa for centuries—culminating in the Song and Yuan dynasties—but no government-sponsored tributary mission of this grandeur and size had ever been assembled before. To service seven different tributary missions abroad, the Nanjing shipyards constructed two thousand vessels from 1403 to 1419, which included the large treasure ships that measured 112 m (370 ft) to 134 m (440 ft) in length and 45 m (150 ft) to 54 m (180 ft) in width.The first voyage from 1405 to 1407 contained 317 vessels with a staff of 70 eunuchs, 180 medical personnel, 5 astrologers, and 300 military officers commanding a total estimated force of 26,800 men. The enormous tributary missions were discontinued after the death of Zheng He, yet his death was only one of many culminating factors which brought the missions to an end. Yongle had conquered Vietnam in 1407, but Ming troops were pushed out in 1428 with significant costs to the Ming treasury; in 1431 the new Lê Dynasty of Vietnam was recognized as an independent tribute state.There was also the threat and revival of Mongol power on the northern steppe which drew court attention away from other matters; to face this threat, a massive amount of funds were used to build the Great Wall after 1474.Yongle's moving of the capital from Nanjing to Beijing was largely in response to the court's need of keeping a closer eye on the Mongol threat in the north. Scholar-officials also associated the lavish expense of the fleets with eunuch power at court, and so halted funding for these ventures as a means to curtail further eunuch influence.
明朝繁荣的科技与文化成就 天文 气象 西元十四世纪中叶的《白猿献三光图》（作者不详）载有一百三十二幅云图，并与天气变化联系起来，绝大部分与现代气象学原理相一致。(欧洲到西元1879年才出版只有十六幅的云图。) 1383年南京设京师观象台 1439年造浑天仪置北京(1900年被八国联军德国劫走.1921年要回,置南京紫金山天文台) 1442年北京设观象台 1446年建晷影堂(位于北京古观象台西南侧) 1607年李之藻撰<浑盖通宪图说>刊行(介绍西方天文观阐释浑天说) 1617年张燮著《东西洋考》记载海洋占候等的详细资料。 1634年正式安装我国第一架天文望远镜:"筩"(yong) 1643年出版《崇祯历书》 数学 物理 1450年吴敬撰<九章算法比类大全> 1584年朱载堉著《律吕精义》出版 1592年程大位撰<算法统宗>最早记载使用珠算方法开平方和开立方 1606年徐光启与利玛窦开始合译《几何原本》 1613年李之藻据西人克拉维斯<实用算术概论>和中国程大位<算法统宗>编译而成<同文算指> 1637年，宋应星在《论气·气声》中对声音的产生和传播作出了合乎科学的解释，他认为声音是由于物体振动或急速运动冲击空气而产生的，声音是通过空气来传播的，同水波相类似。 方以智在《物理小识》卷2中提出："宙（时间）轮于宇（空间），则宇中有宙，宙中有宇。"也就是提出了时间和空间不能彼此独 立存在的时空观。 在《物理小识》卷1中正确地解释了蒙气差（即大气折射）现象 民间光学仪器制造家孙云球制造放大镜、显微镜等几十种光学仪器，并著《镜史》（已佚）。 Reign Yongle Emperor (r. 1402--1424). Rise to power Hongwu's grandson Zhu Yunwen assumed the throne as the Jianwen Emperor (1398--1402) after Hongwu's death in 1398. In a prelude to a three-year-long civil war beginning in 1399, Jianwen became engaged in a political showdown with his uncle Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan. Jianwen was aware of the ambitions of his princely uncles, establishing measures to limit their authority. The militant Zhu Di, given charge over the area encompassing Beijing to watch the Mongols on the frontier, was the most feared of these princes. After Jianwen arrested many of Zhu Di's associates, Zhu Di plotted a rebellion. Under the guise of rescuing the young Jianwen from corrupting officials, Zhu Di personally led forces in the revolt; the palace in Nanjing was burned to the ground, along with Zhu Di's nephew Jianwen, his wife, mother, and courtiers. Zhu Di assumed the throne as the Yongle Emperor (1402--1424); his reign is universally viewed by scholars as a "second founding" of the Ming Dynasty since he reversed many of his father's policies. A new capital and a restored canal Yongle demoted Nanjing as a secondary capital and in 1403 announced the new capital of China was to be at his power base in Beijing. Construction of a new city there lasted from 1407 to 1420, employing hundreds of thousands of workers daily.At the center was the political node of the Imperial City, and at the center of this was the Forbidden City, the palatial residence of the emperor and his family. By 1553, the Outer City was added to the south, which brought the overall size of Beijing to 4 by 4½ miles. After laying dormant and dilapidated for decades, the Grand Canal was restored under Yongle from 1411--1415. The impetus for restoring the canal was to solve the perennial problem of shipping grain north to Beijing. Shipping the annual 4,000,000 shi (one shi is equal to 107 liters) was made difficult with an inefficient system of shipping grain through the East China Sea or by several different inland canals that necessitated the transferring of grain onto several different barge types in the process, including shallow and deep water barges. Yongle commissioned some 165,000 workers to dredge the canal bed in western Shandong and built a series of fifteen canal locks.The reopening of the Grand Canal had implications for Nanjing as well, as it was surpassed by the well-positioned city of Suzhou as the paramount commercial center of China. Although Yongle ordered episodes of bloody purges like his father—including the execution of Fang Xiaoru who refused to draft the proclamation of his succession—Yongle had a different attitude about the scholar-officials. He had a selection of texts compiled from the Cheng-Zhu school of Confucianism—or Neo-Confucianism—in order to assist those who studied for the civil service examinations.Yongle commissioned two thousand scholars to create a 50-million word (22,938-chapter) long encyclopedia—the Yongle Encyclopedia— from seven thousand books. This surpassed all previous encyclopedias in scope and size, including the 11th century compilation of the Four Great Books of Song.
汉朝外交 西元前三世纪，匈奴被冒顿单于统治，国力非常强大，多次侵犯汉朝边境。西元前200年冬，刘邦亲率大军北上，匈奴军队佯装后退，汉军则迅速北进到平城白登山。却在白登被冒顿单于的四十万精锐骑兵包围。刘邦与汉军被包围七天七夜。最后刘邦贿赂匈奴阏氏才得以逃出重围。由于长年战乱，国家初定，经济残破，汉朝采取和亲政策力求与匈奴暂时维持和平。到了景帝时期，汉朝一方面继续和亲，另外也在边境进行屯田移民，在国内则实行复马令来增加马匹，加强士卒训练并大量制造兵器，这些都是预备反抗的准备。汉武帝年间，派以卫青、霍去病为首的将领对匈奴进行三次大规模战争。汉朝占有了河西走廊，切断了匈奴与西羌的关系，为汉朝与西域之间开辟通道，而匈奴则狼狈北徙漠北。汉朝虽一举将匈奴击溃但自身也元气大伤，武帝遂轮台悔过下令休养生息。后来，在汉匈大战中战败的匈奴帝国分裂为五部，其中一部首领呼韩邪单于主动要求与汉和亲，结为亲家。汉元帝以王昭君嫁与呼韩邪单于，是为昭君出塞。到了东汉时期，匈奴又分为两部，分别为南、北匈奴。其中南匈奴立呼韩邪之孙比为单于，与汉朝关系友好。北匈奴立蒲奴为单于，在明帝时期一度侵扰汉朝边境，被击退。章和元年，北匈奴为鲜卑所破，单于被杀，其中五十八部降汉。永元八年，汉车骑将军窦宪等征伐北匈奴余部，单于遁逃，窦宪在燕然山刻石纪功而还。此后，一些北匈奴南降汉朝，另外一些则向西迁徙改变了欧洲历史格局，而欧洲的罗马帝国竟然被逃遁的匈奴残余势力所颠覆！可以说汉朝的这场胜仗实际是间接毁灭了罗马帝国。 西域在汉朝早期是指南疆一带，后来扩展到天山以北和中亚东部。西汉中早期，西域地区为匈奴所控制。汉武帝时期，于建元三年派张骞出使大月氏以联合夹击匈奴。张骞在路上一度被匈奴扣押，并在匈奴娶妻，十余年后逃出，经大宛等国到大月氏，但未能取得夹击匈奴的答复。后来张骞东返，又被匈奴扣押。直到元朔三年才返回长安，回来时只剩他和随从堂邑父三人，他的匈奴妻子也一并来到长安。元狩四年，汉武帝第二次派张骞出使西域，约乌孙共击匈奴。虽然张骞未能说服乌孙国王夹击匈奴，但是张骞却与其使节先后游历了大宛等国，后来亦由各国使节陪同，返回长安，从此以后，汉朝与匈奴反复在西域地区争夺。元封六年，汉武帝以细君公主与乌孙和亲。细君死后，汉又在太初四年以解忧公主续嫁。同年，汉朝大破大宛，西域南道各国都转投汉朝。汉武帝在乌垒设使者校尉，又在渠犁屯田。到宣帝时，汉又驱逐匈奴驻在西域的僮仆都尉，控制西域北道，设立西域都护，总管西域事务。西汉末期，西域各国又因汉朝衰落而脱离汉朝的控制。东汉明帝初年以后，汉朝又恢复了西域的关系，并于永平十六年在乌垒设西域都护，派班超负责西域事务。永元九年，班超派甘英出使大秦。甘英经条支、安息等国，到大秦西界而还。随著西域局势的稳定，商旅往来日益频繁，丝绸之路在汉朝形成。这也是世界历史上最重要的商道之一。 东汉中后期，西羌先后三次进攻汉朝。第一次是在永初元年夏，持续了长达十二年的时间。第二次在119年，战事主要发生在关中地区。直到建康元年才告结束。第三次发生在延熹二年，主要战争在陇西一带进行。汉朝基本以全胜收场。 汉朝初期，与东瓯、闽越、南越等国关系尚友好。后伴随着国力的增强，这三国的越人国家先后被灭。武帝时期，汉朝多次派使节经略西南夷，并在这些地方设立益州等郡。到东汉时期，汉朝与这些地方联系更加紧密。汉朝与朝鲜和日本也有密切联系。 Beginning of the Silk Road From 138 BC, Emperor Wu also dispatched Zhang Qian twice as his envoy to the Western Regions, and in the process pioneered the route known as the Silk Road from Chang'an (today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province), through Xinjiang and Central Asia, and on to the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial relations between China and Central as well as Western Asia flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC, initiating the development of the Silk Road: "The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson). China also sent missions to Parthia, which were followed up by reciprocal missions from Parthian envoys around 100 BC: "When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom... When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them... The emperor was delighted at this." (Shiji, 123, trans. Burton Watson). Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2By AD 97 the Chinese general Ban Chao had embarked on a military expedition as far west as the landmass encompassed by present-day Ukraine in pursuit of fleeing Xiongnu insurgents, and returned eastward to establish base on the shores of the Caspian Sea with 70,000 men and established direct military contacts with the Parthian Empire, also dispatching an envoy to Rome in the person of Gan Ying. Several Roman embassies to China are recounted in Chinese history, starting with a Hou Hanshu (History of the Later Han) account of a Roman convoy set out by emperor Antoninus Pius that reached the Chinese capital Luoyang in 166 and was greeted by Emperor Huan. Good exchanges such as Chinese silk, African ivory, and Roman incense increased the contacts between the East and West. Contacts with the Kushan Empire led to the introduction of Buddhism to China from India in the first century.
科学文化 汉代是中国历史上科技与文化非常辉煌的一个时期。国家也非常重视教育和学识。东汉桓帝时，仅太学生就号称有3万人。 在史学方面，司马迁的《史记》是中国第一部纪传体通史，也是二十四史中的第一部，为以后两千年正史的编纂提供规范。全书分为十二本纪、十表、八书、卅世家、七十列传，共一百卅篇，五十二万六千五百字。班固所编写的《汉书》分为十二纪、八表、十志、七十列传。全书体例仿效《史记》，惟改"书"为"纪"，废"世家"入"列传"，还开创了刑法、五行、地理、天文、艺文四志和《百官公卿表》。《汉书》是中国历史上第一部内容完整的断代史。更是成为了以后历代王朝撰写本朝历史的范本。而两汉时期其他的史书还有《东观汉书》、《汉纪》和《吴越春秋》等。很多西方学者认为，汉代的作家所开创的史学标准，直到18世纪都一直领先于世界。 汉代在立国时用无为而治之法，文景时期，又用道家黄老思想为主，并辅以儒家和法家思想为法制指导思想，不仅强调无为，还注重礼与德的作用，既承认法律的重要性，又坚持约法省简，务在安民。 而从汉武帝之后，统治者又确立儒家思想成为了正统思想，并辅之以法家思想为法制指导思想，其中心是"德主刑辅"，即先用德礼教化，教化无效再施之以刑罚。这种刚柔相济的治国之道，成为汉武帝以后汉王朝法制的指导思想。这一思想对后世历代王朝的立法影响很大。汉宣帝曾有名言："汉家自有制度，本以霸王道杂之。"便是这种思想的精辟阐述。由于秦始皇焚书坑儒所毁坏的很多文献书籍，通过汉代学者的不懈努力和发掘记录得以重现，包括五经当中的古文尚书，也是这时候发掘整理出来的。汉武帝采纳董仲舒的意见"罢黜百家，独尊儒术"后，经学成为学术主流。由于不同学者对经书的理解与记忆都有偏差，学术也被分为不同流派。宣帝时期，在太学中立学官的，《易》有三家，《书》有三家，《诗》有三家，《礼》有一家，《春秋》有两家，共十二博士。东汉初年，增加到十四博士。到东汉晚期，古文经学走向发达，今文经学日益衰微。 汉政府设立乐府，搜集民间诗歌，即为乐府诗，后世的《乐府诗集》《古诗十九首》《玉台新咏》中便搜集了不少汉代乐府诗，长篇叙事诗《孔雀东南飞》也是写成于汉代末年。赋是一种新的文学体裁，司马相如的《子虚赋》、《上林赋》，张衡的《二京赋》等均为千古传颂的文学名篇。汉代时期，隶书亦渐渐取代小篆成为主要书写字体，而隶书的出现则奠定了现代汉字字形结构的基础，成为古今文字的分水岭。这一时期，还出现了标点符号的雏形。 在科技方面，西汉时期已经开始使用丝絮和麻造纸，是纸的远祖，而东汉时的蔡伦改进了造纸术，形成了现代意义上的纸。造纸术成为中国的四大发明之一。东汉张衡制成了世界上第一台能够预报地震的候风地动仪。落下闳等人制定的《太初历》第一次将二十四节气订入历法。张仲景因《伤寒杂病论》而被尊为中华"医圣"、中医之祖。而史书记载华佗更是世界上最早采用全身麻醉的医生（其真实性现在受到陈寅恪等的质疑）。公元前一世纪的《周髀算经》及东汉初年的《九章算术》则是数学领域的杰作。其中，《九章算术》是对战国、秦、汉古代社会创立并巩固时期数学发展的总结，列有分数四则运算、今有术（西方称三率法）、开平方与开立方（包括二次方程数值解法）、盈不足术（西方称双设法）、各种面积和体积公式、线性方程组解法、正负数运算的加减法则、勾股形解法（特别是勾股定理和求勾股数的方法）等筹算方法，形成了一个以筹算为中心、与古希腊数学完全不同的独立体系。 汉代也是中国最早发明瓷器烧造的时代。这个时期还发明了蒸馏法、水力磨坊、现代马轭和肚带的原型、漆器、用于冶金的往复式活塞风箱、出现于汉末的独轮车、水车和吊桥。造船已经采用了防水隔舱、多重桅和船尾柱舵，并且开始使用罗盘。此外，血液循环也是首先在此时发现。两汉时期，中国的冶炼技术也有长足的发展和进步，铸钱技术成熟，如三铢钱、五铢钱等。彩绘工艺独特，如马王堆所出土的帛书彩绘，各种生活用品齐全，如有"汉代魔镜"之称的铜镜，煮盐技术也不断提高，两汉出现了蒸馏酒，酿酒水平臻于完美。农业技术大幅度提高，东汉早期出现了水排等新式灌溉工具。 汉朝也是中国宗教的勃兴期。佛教在汉明帝时期传入中国，白马寺是中国第一间佛寺。道教也是在东汉时期宣告形成的。东汉末年，道教分为两大流派，一支为太平道；另外一支为天师道，亦称为五斗米道（张道陵创五斗米道），而五斗米道内部还有一个大支派，以于吉为教主，在长江下游地区传播。 Culture, society, and technology The intellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourished during the Han Dynasty. The Han period produced by birth China's most famous historian, Sima Qian (145--90 BC), whose Records of the Grand Historian provides a detailed chronicle from the time of legendary Xia emperor to that of the Emperor Wu (141--87 BC). Technological advances also marked this period. One of the great Chinese inventions, paper, dates from the Han Dynasty, largely attributed to the court eunuch Cai Lun (50 - 121 AD). By the 1st century BC, the Chinese had discovered how to forge the highly durable metal of steel, by melting together wrought iron with cast iron. There were great mathematicians, astronomers, statesmen, and technological inventors such as Zhang Heng (78 - 139 AD), who invented the world's first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere.He was also largely responsible for the early development of the shi poetry style in China. Zhang Heng's work in mechanical gear systems influenced countless numbers of inventors and engineers to follow, such as Ma Jun, Yi Xing, Zhang Sixun, Su Song, etc. Zhang Heng's most famous invention was a seismometer with a swinging pendulum that signified the cardinal direction of earthquakes that struck locations hundreds of kilometres away from the positioned device.There was also continuing development in Chinese philosophy, with figures such as Wang Chong (27 - 97 AD), whose written work represented in part the great intellectual atmosphere of the day. Among his various written achievements, Wang Chong accurately described the water cycle in meteorology.Zhang Heng argued that light emanating from the moon was merely the reflected light that came originally from the sun, and accurately described the reasons for solar eclipse and lunar eclipse as path obstructions of light by the celestial bodies of the earth, sun, and moon. Military technology in the Han period was advanced by the use of cast iron and steel, which the 1st century engineer Du Shi had made easier by applying the hydraulic power of waterwheels in working the bellows of the blast furnace.The military of the Han Dynasty also engaged in chemical warfare, as written in the Hou Han Shu for the governor of Ling-ling, Yang Xuan, who fought against a peasant revolt near Guiyang in 178 AD: " The bandits were numerous, and Yang's forces very weak, so his men were filled with alarm and despondency. But he organized several dozen horse-drawn vehicles carrying bellows to blow powdered lime strongly forth, he caused incendiary rags to be tied to the tails of a number of horses, and he prepared other vehicles full of bowmen and crossbowmen. The lime chariots went forward first, and as the bellows were plied the smoke was blown forwards according to the wind, then the rags were kindled and the frightened horses rushed forwards throwing the enemy lines into confusion, after which the bowmen and crossbowmen opened fire, the drums and gongs were sounded, and the terrified enemy was utterly destroyed and dispersed.
汉朝（公元前202年 —公元 220年） 汉朝是中国历史上继短暂的秦朝之后出现的朝代，分为"西汉"（前202年—8年)与"东汉"(公元25年—公元220年）两个历史时期，后世史学家亦称两汉。 西汉为汉高祖刘邦所建立，建都长安；东汉为汉光武帝刘秀所建立，建都洛阳。其间曾有王莽篡汉自立的短暂新朝（公元8年－公元23年）。另外，部分学者亦将蜀汉列入汉朝的延续而将其归入汉朝的一部分，如此汉朝灭亡则是在263年，但大部分说法均将由刘备建立的蜀汉政权归入三国史中。 两汉时期是当时世界上一个伟大的一段历史，汉高祖至汉文景时期的汉朝，经济实力直线上升，成为东方第一帝国，与西罗马并称两大帝国。中亚和西域各大国也都闻而惧之。而到了汉武帝时期，汉帝国已经成为世界上最强大的帝国，匈奴帝国战败而向北狼狈逃遁。张骞出西域首次开辟了著名的"丝绸之路"，开通了东西方贸易的通道，中国从此成为世界贸易体系的中心，直到一千多年后蒙古人的叛乱。正是因为汉朝的声威远播，外族开始称呼中国人为"汉人"，而汉朝人也乐于这样称呼自己。 The Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 漢朝; simplified Chinese: 汉朝; pinyin: Hàn Cháo; Wade-Giles: Han Ch'ao; 206 BC--220 AD) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Han Dynasty was ruled by the prominent family known as the Liu (劉) clan. The reign of the Han Dynasty, lasting over 400 years, is commonly considered within China to be one of the greatest periods in the history of China. To this day, the ethnic majority of China still refer to themselves as the "Han people." During the Han Dynasty, China officially became a Confucian state and prospered domestically: agriculture, handicrafts and commerce flourished, and the population reached over 55 million people. Meanwhile, the empire extended its political and cultural influence over Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, Japan, and Central Asia before it finally collapsed under a combination of domestic and external pressures. The first of the two periods of the dynasty was the Former Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 前漢; simplified Chinese: 前汉; pinyin: Qiánhàn) or Western Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 西漢; simplified Chinese: 西汉; pinyin: Xī Hàn) 206 BC--24 AD, seated at Chang'an. The Later Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 後漢; simplified Chinese: 后汉; pinyin: Hòu Hàn) or Eastern Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 東漢; simplified Chinese: 东汉; pinyin: Dōng Hàn) 25--220 AD was seated at Luoyang. The western-eastern Han convention is currently used to avoid confusion with the Later Han Dynasty of the Period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms although the former-later nomenclature was used in history texts including Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian. The Han Dynasty was notable also for its military prowess. The empire expanded westward to the Tarim Basin (in modern Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region), with military expeditions as far west as beyond the Caspian Sea, making possible a relatively safe and secure caravan and merchantile traffic across Central Asia. The paths of caravan traffic came to be known as the "Silk Road" because the route was used to export Chinese silk. Chinese armies also invaded and annexed parts of northern Korea (Wiman Joseon) and northern Vietnam toward the end of the 2nd century BC. Han Dynasty control of peripheral regions was generally insecure, however. To ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system." Non-Chinese states were allowed to remain autonomous in exchange for symbolic acceptance of Han overlordship. Tributary ties were confirmed and strengthened through intermarriages at the ruling level and periodic exchanges of gifts and goods. Emperor Wu and Confucianism During the "Taoism era", China was able to maintain peace with Xiongnu by paying tribute and marrying princesses to them. During this time, the dynasty's goal was to relieve the society of harsh laws, wars, and conditions from both the Qin Dynasty, external threats from nomads, and early internal conflicts within the Han court. The government reduced taxation and assumed a subservient status to neighboring nomadic tribes. During this era, the government reduced taxation, reducing its role in civilian lives (traditional Chinese: 與民休息; simplified Chinese: 与民休息; pinyin: yǔ mín xiūxi) and initiating a period of stability known as the Rule of Wen and Jing (Chinese: 文景之治; pinyin: Wén-Jǐngzhīzhì), named after the two Emperors of this particular era. However, under Emperor Wu, who reigned over one of the most prosperous periods of the Han Dynasty, the Empire was able to reassert its power. At its height, Han China incorporated present day Qinghai, Gansu, and northern Vietnam into its territories. The state mounted military expeditions into Siberian lands beyond Lake Baikal in the northern extremities and established military bases on the shores of the Caspian Sea at its western extremity. Emperor Wu decided that Taoism was no longer suitable for China and officially declared it a Confucian state; however, like the Emperors of China before him, he combined Legalist methods with the Confucian This official adoption of Confucianism led not only to a civil service nomination system, but also compulsory knowledge of Confucian among candidates for the imperial bureaucracy, a requirement that lasted up to the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911. Confucian scholars gained prominent status as the core of the civil service.
秦朝（公元前221年~公元前206年） 秦朝是由战国时代后期的秦国发展起来的统一王朝，是中国历史上第一个多民族的统一的中央集权的帝国。秦始皇在历代秦国的国王蚕食其它诸侯国之上，完成了统一六大诸侯国的事业，实现了从分封制到郡县制的转变。他所建立的中央集权制度，及其所采取的(旨在巩固统一的)措施，为后世帝王所取用。 秦朝急征暴虐，导致速亡。末年陈胜、吴广领导的农民起义，是中国历史上的第一次农民起义，影响极为深远。由于过去的割据局面所造成的影响，反秦过程中重新出现了分裂的倾向。在接踵而来的争夺统治权的楚汉之争(前207～前202年)中，汉胜楚败，使分裂形势得到控制，统一了国家，一个中央集权的王朝就这样建立了. The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: 秦朝; pinyin: Qín Cháo; Wade-Giles: Ch'in Ch'ao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the feudal Zhou Dynasty and followed by the Han Dynasty in China. The unification of China in 221 BC under the First Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi (or Shih Hwang-Tih) marked the beginning of Imperial China, a period which lasted until the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912. The Qin Dynasty left a legacy of a centralized and bureaucratic state that would be carried onto successive dynasties. At the height of its power, the Qin Dynasty had a population of about 40 million people. Qin Shi Huangdi Main article: Qin Shi Huangdi Qin Shi Huangdi imposed the Qin state's centralized, non-hereditary aristocratic system on his new empire in place of the Zhou's quasi-feudalistic one. The Qin Empire relied on the philosophy of legalism (with skillful advisors like Han Fei and Li Si). Centralization, achieved by ruthless methods, was focused on standardizing legal codes and bureaucratic procedures, the forms of writing and coinage, and the pattern of thought and scholarship. Characters from the former state of Qin became the standard for the entire empire. The length of the wheel axle was also unified and expressways standardized to ease transportation throughout the country. To silence criticism of imperial rule, the emperor banished or put to death many dissenting Confucian scholars and confiscated and burned their books. To prevent future uprisings, Qin Shi Huangdi ordered the confiscation of weapons and stored them in the capital. In order to prevent the resurgence of feudal lords, he also destroyed the walls and fortifications that had separated the previous six states. A national conscription was devised: every male between the ages of seventeen and sixty years was obliged to serve one year in the army. Qin aggrandizement was aided by frequent military expeditions pushing forward the frontiers in the north and south. To fend off a barbarian intrusion (mainly against the Xiongnu in the north), the fortification walls built by the various warring states were connected to make a wall; this is usually recognized as the first Great Wall of China, although the present, 4,856- kilometer-long Great Wall of China was largely built or re-built during the Ming Dynasty. A number of public works projects, including canals and bridges, were also undertaken to consolidate and strengthen imperial rule. A lavish tomb for the emperor, complete with a Terracotta Army, was built near the capital Xianyang, a city half an hour from modern Xi'an. These activities required enormous levies of manpower and resources, not to mention repressive measures.
妇好是商王武丁60多位妻子中的一位，即祖庚、祖甲的母辈母辛，生活于公元前12世纪的前半叶武丁重整商王朝时期，是我国最早的女政治家和军事家。中国历史上第一位有据可查的女英雄。 http://bk.baidu.com/view/29998.htm 武丁，商朝国君（公元前1250—1191年在位），军事统帅。子姓，名昭。商王小乙之子。相传少年时期遵父命行役于外,与平民一同劳作,得以了解民众疾苦和稼穑艰辛。继位后,勤于政事,任用工匠出身的傅说及甘盘、祖己等贤能之人辅政，励精图治，使商朝政治、经济、军事、文化得到空前发展。出土的武丁时期甲骨卜辞有中师之名，当是开创军队以师为最高建制单位，也有认为是初建右、中、左三师。鉴于方、土方经常侵扰商朝边地和属国，甚至联合威胁商西北边安全，乃采取各个击破之策，多次遣将发兵进攻，又亲自统兵出征，终将方、土方征服。用长达三年时间平定鬼方。发重兵击败羌方，俘获大批羌人充为奴隶(见武丁攻西北部族之战)。统兵南征,深入荆楚之地，击败荆楚军，俘获甚多。还出兵征伐夷方、巴方、蜀及虎方等。对周边方国、部族的战争,拓展了商朝版图和势力范围,促进了中原地区与周边部族的经济、文化交流，使商朝成为西起甘肃,东至海滨，北及大漠，南逾江、汉流域,包含众多部族的泱泱大国，史称武丁中兴。在位59年而卒，被追谥为高宗。 http://bk.baidu.com/view/51770.htm 鼎是青铜器的最重要器种之一，是用以烹煮肉和盛贮肉类的器具。三代及秦汉延续两千多年，鼎一直是最常见和最神秘的礼器。 http://bk.baidu.com/view/14015.htm 玉皇大帝(Jade Emperor)，居于太微玉清宫，全称昊天金阙无上至尊自然妙有弥罗至真玉皇上帝。究其名号，据《玉帝圣号同异考》说：玉帝圣号，崇自牿劫前，中古复尊上，重称赞耳。世主好道，感玄恩，各就所见闻，所皈重，随其彰著，敬上诸神之号，以定称谓。 http://bk.baidu.com/view/3703.htm