A look at the 28-year process of South Sudan's independence.
Created by voamultilingual on Jul 7, 2011
Last updated: 07/09/11 at 08:04 PM
July 9, 2011 - Republic of South Sudan is world’s newest country.
North and south representatives agree to establish a Common Border Zone between North and South Sudan.
Northern Sudanese troops seize the Abyei region. In this image, southern Sudanese protest the incursion.
Southern Sudanese choose secession in a referendum. The Abyei referendum is postponed indefinitely.
ICC issues a second arrest warrant for Bashir on genocide charges for Darfur conflict.
Elections are held for governments and parliaments of Sudan, southern Sudan and all states. On May 21, Kiir (pictured, right) becomes the south’s first elected president.
Sudan passes a law authorizing the southern independence referendum in 2011.
The International Criminal Court issues an arrest warrant for Bashir on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity in the western Darfur region -- a separate conflict than the north-south war. In March, Khartoum rejects the warrant.
President Bashir and southern leader Kiir sign the Abyei Roadmap Agreement for international arbitration to resolve the dispute. In this image, Kiir and Bashir join Taha in a meeting.
Intense north-south fighting breaks out in disputed Abyei. This image shows charred remains from the conflict.
After repeated delays, Sudan holds its first census since 1993. The count is seen as vital towards holding democratic elections under the 2005 peace deal. The SPLM disputes the results, saying southerners are undercounted and numbers for some northern groups seen as sympathetic to the National Congress Party are overstated.
A plane crash kills Garang. Salva Kiir succeeds him. Garang’s death sparks deadly clashes in Khartoum between southern Sudanese and northern Arabs. In this image, Sudanese gather to mourn Garang, one of mourners holds his photograph.
The North and South sign a U.S.-brokered cease-fire accord for power and revenue-sharing, called the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The accord outlines a referendum after six years, giving southern Sudanese the choice of continuing the agreement or seceding. Pictured at the signing ceremony are Sudanese vice president Ali Osman Mohammed Taha, left, and Garang
The national government and SPLM/A reach a landmark agreement -- known as the Machakos Protocol -- on the role of state and religion and the right of the south to seek self-determination. In this image, Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi addresses the signing ceremony.
Bashir is re-elected to five-year term in presidential elections boycotted by main opposition parties. He is pictured on the poster in this image.
Sudan starts oil exports via a pipeline from Bentiu to Port Sudan.
Nimeiri returns to Sudan at Bashir’s invitation.
Bashir is appointed president of Sudan, to head a nominally civilian government with a national assembly and political parties.
General Omar al-Bashir leads a military coup against Prime Minister Sadiq al-Mahdi. The North-South conflict intensifies. Mahdi is pictured center left.
While outside the country, Nimeiri is overthrown by a popular uprising in Khartoum. General Suwar al-Dahab leads the transitional government, which suspends the 1983 constitution and disbands Nimeiri’s Sudan Socialist Union.
Sudan's second civil war breaks out between the Khartoum government and the southern rebel group, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM), led by John Garang. Garang is right side of image.