Created by ysondhi on Mar 23, 2011
Last updated: 03/28/11 at 11:48 PM
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Tuberculosis has been with Humanity since antiquity, killing countless people. It has many different names such as but not only, Scrofula, Tabes, Bronchitis, Lupus, Gastric Fever and Hepatic fever. It is caused by tuberculosis bacilli. The first man to isolate it was a German bacteriologist named Robert Konch who did that in the year 1882.
TB is a disease of poverty, it thrives in areas which are crowded and unhygienic. It spreads in the saliva of the infected and spreads when they cough or sneeze; traveling on thousands of tiny droplets that fly through the air.
It is connected to the industrial revolution because was endemic in dirty and crowded industrial slums which were common in industrial centers. For example in England, 1 in 4 deaths were caused by TB during the year 1815.
It is also connected to the scientific revolution because was of great interest to scientists, especially bacteriologists. Armed with the microscope, an invention that has a helped scientist to this day; biologist were to successfully isolate the bacteria that caused TB. And by the 1960s TB was under control in much of the world.
If TB had not existed the course of human history would have possibly taken a different path. Many of the individuals how died of TB would have not, they would have done things that might of have a very minor effect like marrying into a bloodline that wouldn't have existed in our timeline or kill someone who didn't die in our timeline. These effect would have been amplified with the course of history producing a complete different world.
The periodic table was created by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev; He published it in 1869.While it wasn't the first table of its time, it was able to streamline large amounts of information into a concise and informative form factor.
This table solved problems that came about when scientist attempted arrange the elements in to groups. In fact this table allowed scientists to predict characteristics of undiscovered elements.
The periodic table connects to the scientific revolution because this tables assisted and continues to assist all manner of scientists today. The table is a standard, at an international chemistry seminar when they talk about the atomic weight of carbon (C), everyone knows what it is regardless of cultural language barriers.
It also connects to the industrial revolution because the periodic table, because firstly simplified chemistry and secondly assisted professional chemists and armatures who were able to create new materials like petroleum. These new material triggered great social changes, for example petroleum which fueled automobiles created a car culture, especially in the united states. Also chemists were able to also produce ammonia, which is critical for the world's food because its an widely used inexpensive dependable fertilizer.
Actually the world would have not been effected in a major way because other chemists were developing tables similar to Dmitri's. How ever Dmitri's table was slightly more user friendly so that may have had a minor effect on chemistry.
Electrical phenomena has been know to humans since time immemorial. During the scientific revolution scientist and intellectuals begin to affect this phenomena in great depth. Though even up to the 1920s electricity was considered a strange, almost magical thing by the general public. The first person to generate electricity was Michael Faraday. He was able to manipulate the properties of magnetic substances and produce a viable a electric current with it.
Electricity allowed the development of even smaller machine, that could carry their own power source, like a portable power tool. Also it allowed the development of electronics such as the computer and portable music players. A problem that has sprung up though is that society now depends on electricity to function properly. From cars to cruise liners almost ever service and advanced device on the planet is dependent on electronics.
Electrical power is connected to the industrial revolution because with electricity and electronics machines became more advanced and in some cases autonomous like in the car industry. Also electricity triggered several changes in society, such as widespread adoption of home appliances, radios, TVs computers and the birth of an 'instant' culture. Instant meals, instant news, instant movies, instant coffee, instant anything.
Electricity is connected to environmentalism because most of the fuel that powers the electric appliances are fossil fuels like coal and oil. This obviously leads to pollution, especially pollution of the atmosphere.
Without electricity we would still be probably living in a Victorian style world, at most the steam engine would reach the pinnacle of its development than be replaced by internal combustion engines. The world would continue to develop bit by bit but as dramatically as the world with electric power.
An automobile is a wheeled motorized device that is used for transport of any person or item, primarily but not limited to paved areas and roads. The first contraption that falls into this category was a device devised by the French men Nicolas Joseph Cugnot though this steam powered machine only moved at about 2.25 miles per hour, and broke down often, it was a start toward automobiles today .
With Automobiles people and goods are able cross large distances in relatively short amounts of time. It solved the problem of distance and logistics.
Automobiles are connected to the industrial revolution because an automobile is essentially a mechanized version of animal transport such as a horse or ox. Nicolas Cugnot intend his invention would replace the horses that towed artillery. The automobile is also a product of this revolution.
It is connected to environmentalism because most automobiles use liquid fuels made from crude oil, which releases pollutants into the air when burned. Automobiles are one of the primary sources of air pollution on earth.
A world without automobiles would mean people would be far less interdependent on each other, cities like Riyadh which are dependant on trucks to bring in food and other goods would shrink back to its pre industrial size (eg before 1900). Also traveling and sending goods over long distances would be an extremely tedious affair.
A steam engine is a engine that uses steam to transport the energy to produce motion that makes the engine do mechanical work. The modern steam engine was pioneered by three men, Thomas Savery, Thomas Newcomen and James Watt during the Age of Enlightenment. Steam engines are still in use today, such as in nuclear power plants and several facilities which use the power of the sun to get the steam going.
Steam engine solved several problems. First of all machines like boats, using steam powered engine to propel themselves meant they were no longer dependant on the wind, moved faster and in general preformed better than their wind powered counterparts. Secondly labor that was once undertaken using animal or natural (wind, water) power such as grinding wheat was replaced by mechanical labor powered by steam engines. This allowed quality of the end product to go up and the speed it was produced.
This is connected to the industrial revolution because without it, it might have not happened. The great steam powered trains, ships and all manner of machinery would have come to a halt. Steam was the driving force of this age.
It is also connected to environmentalism because all steam engines rely on a source of heat. The preferred source was coal due to its relative availability. When burned coal release gases that pollute the atmosphere. This contributes to global warming.
Without the steam engine the industrial revolution might not have happened, and humans might have still be living in Napoleonic like era in terms of industrial technology.
A Newspaper is a publication that contains news, public announcements, ads and other information, that published at a regular interval. Its prime purpose is to inform readers of events local and international. The earliest publications originated from 16th century Germany.
The newspaper solved several communication problems. Previously news was spread through bulletins and systems of hand written news letters, this system was especially popular in the Italian peninsula. Due to its handwritten nature news and information spread slowly and did not have regular publishing intervals . However demand for information concerning news about foreign affairs, wars and political events in general ratcheted up, especially for events that would effect regional prices for goods and consumables. This news was particularly important for merchants and traders. However with the advent of the printing press a innovative German by the name of Johann Carlos produced the worlds fist newspaper in 1605 called the 'Relation'.
The newspaper is connected to the industrial revolution because public in general was more informed of events occurring far, wide and locally. This had a effect on government policy due to the presence of an informed public who had a opinion. This led to reforms such as the abolishment of child labor in the UK.
It is also connected to environmentalism because news paper requires paper, a lot of people read news papers, 78.8 million per day are read in a country like India. This has a obvious effect, a lot of trees have to be cut down and in the process destroying the habitat for the animals that reside in that area.
Without newspapers the general public would be far more ignorant about events occurring outside their immediate vicinity and therefore have less of a voice and a general consensus.
A microscope is a device that allows the user to observe objects that are too small to view with the naked eye, like bacteria. There are several different types of microscopes that use a variety of different methods to enlarge the image of a given object such as focusing light or harnessing the power of the electron. Two Dutch spectacle makers Hans Janssen and his son Zacharias Janssen, were credited with making the worlds first microscope.
With the microscope people like scientists, were able to discover and identify specific diseases like TB or closely examine the inner workings of the human body, like human blood cells.
The microscope connects to the scientific revolution because the microscope allowed scientist observe the things that never previously seen by human eyes such a single celled bacteria and the very cells that make up or being. It helped create bacteriology, the science of bacteria.
It is connected to the industrial revolution because it allowed manufactures to observe and check small defect that would effect the performance of a given item, such as high quality contact lenses and more importantly microchips, which triggered a information revolution in the late 20th century .
In a world without microscopes humans would not truly be able to identify the source of a given disease, not be observe of understand the inner workings of our body beyond what we could see and it would be extremely hard to produce defect free precision products such as eye wear, telescopes and microchips.
The printing press was invented by the German Johannes Gutenburg in the year 1440. A printing press is essentially a group of stamps (a was on one stamp, b on another etc), that are set on a specialized board to create a page and then pressed onto a piece of paper and repeated perpetually to make pages. This led to assembly line like speed in book production. As early 1620 philosophers like Francis Bacon had declared the printing press had revolutionized Europe.
The printing press solved all manner of problems concerning book production. Speed was the biggest; previously books had to be hand copied or block printed, both of which were extremely tedious processes. However with one printing press one could out copy and print competing producers with ease. Another issue was quality control, the quality of a scribes work would vary form person to person, but a press could maintain quality and each print would be identical to the next, a standard print. Finally cost dropped because much of the work required less man hours and required a different kind of worker.
This is connected to the scientific revolution because it allowed information, especially that of a scientific nature to be disseminated throughout Europe by way of scientific journals.
It is connected to the Industrial revolution because the press itself was industrialized; text could be printed on an even larger scale, and it effect on society was amplified and helped trigger several reforms such as the publication of the 'The Jungle' by Upton Sinclair; which caused reforms in the meat industry.
Without the printing press life as we know it would not be possible. Information would have to be passed orally, very slowly. Science would be stunted by lack of information circulating. The renaissance would not have occurred or more likely occurred over a far longer period of time. Commerce would be adversely affected due lack of information about the wider world. Literacy rates would be extremely low. What books exist would be treasured objects, cared with the greatest reverence. The world would continue being in a 'Dark Age'.